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Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Third Generation Wireless Communications System












Contents
Preface xiii
Reference xvii
1 The Golden Age of Wireless 1
1.1 The First Golden Age, 1890–1940 1
1.2 A Quiet Interregnum, 1940–1990 4
1.3 The Digital Radio Revolution 7
1.4 The Capacity Crisis, 1995–2001 10
1.5 The New Golden Age 19
References 21
2 Shannon 23
2.1 “Our Shannon” 23
2.2 Claude Elwood Shannon (1916–2001) 26
2.3 Shannon Theory 31
2.3.1 Nyquist 32
2.3.2 The Impotance of Noise 35
2.3.3 Discrete Sources and Entropy 36
2.3.4 Channel Coding and Error Control 37
2.3.5 Quantization of Analog Sources 38
2.3.6 Power and Bandwidth 39
References 44
3 Wireless Systems Design: Problems
and Parameters 47
3.1 Three Unique Design Constraints 47
3.1.1 The Basic Communications Link and the
Nonengineerable Wireless Channel 48
3.1.2 The Nonclonable Wireless Channel and the
Challenges of Multiple Access 55
3.1.3 The Conundrums of Interference 59
3.2 The Basic Parameters: Channel, Signal, and Noise 61
3.2.1 The Primary Signal/Channel Dimensions: Space,
Time, and Frequency 62
3.2.2 Noise and Interference 65
3.2.3 Self-Interference 69
3.2.4 Orthogonality 72
3.2.5 Secondary Signal Dimensions: Amplitude and Angle 73
3.2.6 Tertiary Signal Dimensions: Signal Structure 77
3.2.7 Quaternary Signal Dimensions: The Structure of
the Payload 79
3.2.8 The Layered Signal and the Primacy of the Physical
Layer 81
3.3 First- and Second-Generation Wireless
Architectures 83
3.3.1 First-Generation Systems: Power Versus Noise 83
3.3.2 The Cellular Revolution: Reorganizing the
S-Dimension 84
3.3.3 Second-Generation Systems: Digital Extensions—
Reorganizing the T-Dimension 85
3.3.4 On the Threshold of 3G 86
References 87
4 Third Generation Systems: Physical Layer
Technology Strategies 89
4.1 From Interference Avoidance to Interference
Management 89
4.1.1 The Penalty for Orthogonality 90
4.1.2 Taming the Interference 98
4.2 Signal Hardening Techniques 100
4.2.1 Error Correction (Channel Coding) 101
4.2.2 Diversity Techniques 102
4.2.3 Convolutional Techniques 107
4.3 Signal Shaping Techniques 111
4.3.1 Compression: Source Coding 112
4.3.2 Baseband Shaping 113
4.3.3 Spectrum Shaping 114
4.3.4 Beam Forming: Smart Antennas 115
4.4 Signal Recovery 115
4.4.1 Cancellation of T-Interference (I): Equalization 116
4.4.2 Cancellation of T-Interference (II): Multipath
Combining 116
4.4.3 Cancellation of S-Interference: Spatially Selective
Receivers 118
4.5 Beyond Orthogonality: Convolved Wireless
Architectures and Design Principles 118
4.5.1 Signal Spreading 120
4.5.2 Interference Averaging 123
4.5.3 Signal Averaging: Noise-Like Signals 127
4.5.4 Interference Cancellation: Unscrambling the
Omelet 128
4.5.5 Adaptive Signal Design 131
4.5.6 Convolutional Signal Structures 134
References 135
5 Signal Hardening Techniques 139
5.1 Coding: A Vast Philosophy 140
5.1.1 Coding: The Standard View 144
5.1.2 A Deeper Look 146
5.1.3 Quantization: Many-to-One Mapping 147
5.1.4 Nonlinearity and Threshold Effects 153
5.1.5 Coding as Redundancy Construction: One-to-
Many Mapping 159
5.1.6 Signal Expansion: Channel Coding as Noise
Averaging 163
5.1.7 Message Space Expansion: Channel Coding as
Signal Geometry 166
5.2 Basic Channel Coding Strategies 175
5.2.1 Block Codes 175
5.2.2 Convolutional Codes 177
5.2.3 Decoding Algorithms 182
5.2.4 Performance: Coding Gain 184
5.3 Advanced Coding Strategies 186
5.3.1 Interaction Between Channel Coding and Source
Compression Strategies 186
5.3.2 Channel Characteristics and the Choice of
Coding Schemes: Burst Errors 190
5.3.3 Soft Decision Techniques 194
5.3.4 Side Information 199
5.3.5 Pilot Signals 201
5.3.6 Trellis Coding 202
5.3.7 Hierarchical Coding Structures: Concatenated
Coding, Turbo Coding, and Parallel Coding 206
5.4 Diversity Techniques 213
5.4.1 Frequency Diversity 217
5.4.2 Time Diversity 221
5.4.3 Space Diversity 222
5.5 Convolutional Signals 223
References 227
6 Signal Shaping Techniques (Transmitter-
Oriented Strategies) 231
6.1 Concepts of Efficient Transmission: Compression
and Shaping 231
6.2 Signal Nonlinearities: A Conundrum 236
6.3 Compression: Post-Shannon Source Coding
Strategies 241
6.3.1 Lossless Compression 244
6.3.2 Lossy Compression 251
6.3.3 Perceptual Coding 254
6.3.4 Correlative Quantization 256
6.3.5 Source Modeling 265
6.4 Baseband Signal Shaping 267
6.5 RF Signal Shaping 272
6.5.1 Bandwidth-Efficient Modulation 272
6.5.2 Linearized RF Systems 276
6.6 Smart Antenna Technologies (Transmission) 281
6.7 Adaptive Link Technologies 284
6.7.1 Adaptive Power Control 285
6.7.2 Adaptive Time Alignment 289
6.7.3 Adaptive Modulation 292
References 295
7 Signal Recovery Techniques (Receiver-
Oriented Strategies) 299
7.1 Logical-Level Signal Recovery Strategies: The
Active Receiver 303
7.1.1 Reliability Assessment and Erasure Strategies 308
7.1.2 Residual Redundancy and Codeless Error
Detection 310
7.1.3 Error Concealment 312
7.2 The Transfer Function: Modeling the Channel 315
7.2.1 Transmitter-Assisted Acquisition of the Transfer
Function 321
7.2.2 Blind Acquisition of the Transfer Function 321
7.2.3 The Source Model as a Basis for Blind Acquisition 322
7.2.4 A Priori Knowledge of the Physical Channel as a
Basis for Blind Acquisition 323
7.2.5 “Multipath Is Your Friend” 323
7.3 One-Dimensional Signal Recovery Strategies:
Equalization and RAKE Receivers 342
7.3.1 Subtractive Techniques: Equalization 344
7.3.2 Constructive Techniques: RAKE Architectures 351
7.4 Spatial Techniques: Array Processing 355
7.5 Multidimensional Signal Recovery Strategies 360
7.5.1 Multidimensional Equalization 361
7.5.2 Multidimensional RAKE Receivers 361
7.6 Multiuser Detection and Interference Cancellation 362
References 367
8 Signal Expansion Strategies: Beyond
Orthogonality 377
8.1 An Analogy: Stereo and Beyond 380
8.2 Spreading Forced Through Multiplication in the
Time Domain: Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum 393
8.3 Spreading Forced Through Multiplication in the
Frequency Domain: OFDM and Multicarrier
CDMA 406
8.3.1 Constructing the Complex F-Domain Signal 406
8.3.2 Tailoring the OFDM Signal to Fit the “Shape”
of the Channel Transfer Function 415
8.3.4 Multicarrier CDMA 428
8.4 Forced Spatial Spreading: Creating Artificial
Multipath 435
8.4.1 Creating Multipath: The Physical Aspect of Spatial
Spreading—Transmitter Diversity and Multiple-
Input/Multiple-Output (MIMO) Channels 436
8.4.2 The Coding Aspect of Spatial Spreading: Space–
Time Codes 440
8.4.3 Space–Time Architectures: Ultimate RF? 443
References 446
9 Epilogue:
The Red Queen and the Kitten 453
9.1 Countertrends 455
9.1.1 Verdú 455
9.1.2 Abramson 457
9.1.3 Viterbi et al. 460
9.1.4 Chuang and Sollenberger 461
9.2 Predictions 463
9.3 Whither Shannon? 465
References 469
About the Author 471
Index 473

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