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Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Computer Graphics, C Version (2nd Ed.)












PREFACE xvii
1 A Survey of Computer 2-2
Graphics 2
Computer-Aided Design 2-3
Presentation Graphics 'I 2-4
Computer Art l 3 2-5
Entertainment 18
Education and Training 2 1
Visualization 25
Image Processing 3 2
Graphical User Interfaces 3 4
Overview of Graphics 2 systems 35 2-6
2-1 VideoDisplayDevices 36 2-7
Refresh Cathode-Ray Tubes 37
Raster-Scan Displays 40
Random-Scan Displays 41
Color CRT Monitors 42
Direct-View Storage Tubes 4.5
Flat-Panel Displays 45
Three-Dimensional Viewing Devices 49
Stereoscopic and Virtual-Reality
Systems
Raster-Scan System!;
Video Controller
Raster-Scan Display Processor
Random-Scan Systems
Graphics Monitors and Workstations
Input Devices
Keyboards
Mouse
Trackball and Spaceball
Joysticks
Data Glove
Digitizers
Image Scanners
Touch Panels
Light Pens
Voice Systems
Hard-Copy Devices
Graphics Software
Coordinate Representations
Graphics Functions
Software Standards
PHIGS Workstations
Summary
References
Exercises
3 Outout Primitives 83
Points and Lines
Line-Drawing Algorithms
DDA Algorithm
Bresenham's Line Algorithm
Parallel Line Algorithms
Loading the Frame Buffer
Line Function
Circle-Generating Algorithms
Properties of Circles
Midpoint Circle Algorithm
Ellipse-Generating Algorithms
Properties of Ellipses
Midpoint Ellipse Algorithm
Other Curves
Conic Sections
Polynomials and Spline Curves
Parallel Curve Algorithms
Curve Functions
Pixel Addressing
and Object Geometry
Screen Grid Coordinates
Maintaining Geometric Properties
of Displayed Objects
Filled-Area Primitives
Scan-Line Polygon Fill Algorithm
Inside-Outside Tests
Scan-Line Fill of Curved Boundary
Areas
Boundary-Fill Algorithm
Flood-Fill Algorithm
Fill-Area Functions
Cell Array
Character Generation
Summary
Applications
References
Exercises
Attributes of Output
Primitives 143
Line Attributes
Line Type
Line Width
Pen and Brush Options
Line Color
Curve Attributes
Color and Grayscale Levels
Color Tables
Grayscale
Area-Fill Attributes
Fill Styles
Pattern Fill
Soft Fill
Character Attributes
Text Attributes
Marker Attributes
Bundled Attributes
Bundled Line Attributes
Bundled Area-Fi Attributes
Bundled Text Attributes
Bundled Marker Attributes
Inquiry Functions
Antialiasing
Supersampling Straight Line
Segments
Pixel-Weighting Masks
Area Sampling Straight Line 5-6 Aff ine Transformations 208
Segments 174 5-7 Transformation Functions 208
Filtering Techniques 174 5-8 Raster Methods for Transformations 210
Pixel Phasing 1 75 Summary 212
Compensating for Line lntensity
Differences 1 75 References 21 3
Antialiasing Area Boundaries 1 76 Exercises 213
Summary
References
Exercises
Two-Dimensional
180 6 Viewing 21 6
6-1 The Viewing Pipeline
5 Two-Dimensional Geometric 6-2 Viewing Coordinate Reference Frame
183 6-3 Window-teviewport Coordinate Transformations Transformation
5-1 Basic Transformations
Translation
Rotation
Scaling
5-2 Matrix Representations
and Homogeneous Coordinates
5-3 Composite Transformations
Translations
Rotations
Scalings
General Pivot-Point Rotation
General Fixed-Point Scaling
General Scaling Directions
Concatenation Properties
General Composite Transformations
and Computational Efficiency
5-4 Other Transformations
Reflection
Shear
Two-Dimensional Wewing Functions
Clipping Operations
Point Clipping
Line Clipping
Cohen-Sutherland Line Clipping
Liang-Barsky Line Clipping
Nicholl-Lee-Nicholl Line Clipping
Line Clipping Using Nonrectangular
Clip Windows
Splitting Concave Polygons
Polygon Clipping
Sutherland-Hodgernan Polygon
Clipping
Weiler-Atherton Polygon Clipping
Other Polygon-Clipping Algorithms
Curve Clipping
Text Clipping
Exterior Clipping
Summary
5-5 Transformations Between Coordinate References
Systems 205 Exercises
7 Structures and Hierarchical
Modeling 250
7-1 Structure Concepts 250
Basic Structure Functions 250
Setting Structure Attributes 253
7-2 Editing Structures 254
Structure Lists and the Element
Pointer 255
Setting the Edit Mode 250
Inserting Structure Elements 256
Replacing Structure Elements 257
Deleting Structure Elements 257
Labeling Structure Elements 258
Copying Elements from One Structure
to Another 260
7-3 Basic Modeling Concepts 2 60
Mode1 Representations 261
Symbol Hierarchies 262
Modeling Packages. 263
7-4 Hierarchical Modeling
with Structures 265
Local Coordinates and Modeling
Transformations 265
Modeling Transformations 266
Structure Hierarchies 266
Summary 268
References 269
Exercises 2 69
Graphical User Interfaces
8 and Interactive lnput
Methods 271
8-1 The User Dialogue
Windows and Icons
Accommodating Multiple
Skill Levels
Consistency
Minimizing Memorization
Backup and Error Handling
Feed back
8-2 lnput of Graphical Data
Logical Classification of Input
Devices
Locator Devices
Stroke Devices
String Devices
Valuator Devices
Choice Devices
Pick Devices
8-3 lnput Functions
Input Modes
Request Mode
Locator and Stroke Input
in Request Mode
String Input in Request Mode
Valuator Input in Request Mode
Choice lnput in Request Mode
Pick Input in Request Mode
Sample Mode
Event Mode
Concurrent Use of Input Modes
8-4 Initial Values for Input-Device
Parameters
8-5 lnteractive Picture-Construction
Techniques
Basic Positioning Methods
Constraints
Grids
Gravity Field
Rubber-Band Methods
Dragging
Painting and Drawing
Virtual-Reality Environments 292 10-4
Summary 233
References 294
Exercises 294 10-5
10-6
9 Three-Dimensional
Concepts 296
9-1 Three-Dimensional Display Methods
Parallel Projection
Perspective Projection
Depth Cueing
Visible Line and Surface
Identification
Surface Rendering
Exploded and Cutaway Views
Three-Dimensional and Stereoscopic
Views
9-2 Three-Dimensional Graphics
Packages 302
Three-Dimensional
10-1 Polygon Surfaces
Polygon Tables
Plane Equations
Polygon Meshes
10-2 Curved Lines and Surfaces
10-3 Quadric Sutiaces
Sphere
Ellipsoid
Torus
Superquadrics
Superellipse
Superellipsoid
Blobby Objects
Spline Representations
Interpolation and Approximation
Splines
Parametric Continuity
Conditions
Geometric Continuity
Conditions
Spline Specifications
Cubic Spline Interpolation
Methods
Natural Cubic Splines
Hermite Interpolation
Cardinal Splines
Kochanek-Bartels Splines
Bezier Curves and Surfaces
Bezier Curves
Properties of Bezier Curves
Design Techniques Using Bezier
Curves
Cubic Ezier Curves
Bezier Surfaces
B-Spline Curves and Surfaces
B-Spline Curves
Uniform, Periodic B-Splines
Cubic, Periodic €3-Splines
Open, Uniform B-Splines
Nonuniform 13-Splines
B-Spline Surfaces
Beta-Splines
Beta-Spline Continuity
Conditions
Cubic, Periodic Beta-Spline
Matrix Representation
Rational Splines
Conversion Between Spline
Representations
Displaying Spline Curves
and Surfaces
Homer's Rule
Forward-Difference Calculations
Subdivision Methods
Sweep Representations
Constructive Solid-Geometry
Methods
Octrees
BSP Trees
Fractal-Geometry Methods
Fractal-Generation Procedures
Classification of Fractals
Fractal Dimension
Geometric Construction
of Deterministic Self-Similar
Fractals
Geometric Construction
of Statistically Self-Similar
Fractals
Affine Fractal-Construction
Methods
Random Midpoint-Displacement
Methods
Controlling Terrain Topography
Self-squaring Fractals
Self-inverse Fractals
Shape Grammars and Other
Procedural Methods
Particle Systems
Physically Based Modeling
Visualization of Data Sets
Visual Representations
for Scalar Fields
VisuaI Representations
for Vector Fields
Visual Representations
for Tensor Field
Visual Representations
for Multivariate Data Fields 402
Summary 404
References 404
Exercises 404
Three-Dimensional
11 Geometric and Modeling
Transformations 407
Translation 408
Rotation 409
Coordinate-Axes Rotations 409
General Three-Dimensional
Rotations 41 3
Rotations with Quaternions 419
Scaling 420
Other Transformat~ons 422
Reflections 422
Shears 423
Conlposite Transformations 423
Three-Dimens~onal Transformation
Functions 425
Modeling and Coordinate
Transformations 426
Summary 429
References 429
Exercises 430
Three-Dimensional 12 Viewing 43 1
12-1 Viewing Pipeline 432
12-2 Viewing Coordinates 433
Specifying the Virbw Plane 433
Transformation from World
- 40 1 to Viewing Coordinates
Projections
Parallel Projections
Perspective IJrojections
View Volumes and General
Projection Transformations
General Parallel-Projection
Transformations
General Perspective-Projection
Transformations
Clipping
Normalized View Volumes
Viewport Clipping
Clipping in Homogeneous
Coordinates
Hardware Implementations
Three-Dimensional Viewing
Functions
Summary
References
Exercises
1 3-1 2 Wireframe Methods 490
13-1 3 Visibility-Detection Functions 490
Summary 49 1
Keferences 492
Exercises 49 2
lllumination Models
14 and Surface-Rendering
Methods 494
Visi ble-Su dace Detection
Met hods 469
Classification of Visible-Surface
D~tectionA lgorithms
Back-Face Detection
Depth-Buffer Method
A-Buffer Method
Scan-Line Method
Depth-Sorting Method
BSP-Tree Method
Area-Subdivision Method
Octree Methods
Ray-Casting Met hod
Curved Surfaces
Curved-Surface Representations
Surface Contour Plots
Light Sources
Basic lllumination Models
Ambient Light
Diffuse Reflection
Specular Reflection
and the Phong Model
Combined Diffuse and Specular
Reflections with Multiple Light
Sources
Warn Model
Intensity Attenuation
Color Considerations
Transparency
Shadows
Displaying Light Intensities
Assigning Intensity Levels
Gamma Correction and Video
Lookup Tables
Displaying Continuous-Tone
Images
Halftone Patterns and Dithering
Techniques
Halftone Approximations
Dithering Techniques
Polygon-Rendering Methods
Constant-Intensity Shading
Gouraud Shading
Phong Shading
Fast Phong Shading
Ray-Tracing Methods
Basic Ray-Tracing Algorithm
Ray-Surface Intersection
CaIculations
Reducing Object-Intersection
Calculations
Space-Subdivision Methods
AntiaIiased Ray Tracing
Distributed Ray Tracing
Radiosity Lighting Model
Basic Radiosity Model
Progressive Refinement
Radiosity Method
Environment Mapping
Adding Surface Detail
Modeling Surface Detail
with Polygons
Texture Mapping
Procedural Texturing
Methods
Bump Mapping
Frame Mapping
Summary
References
Exercises
15-6 CMY Color Model
15-7 HSV Color Model
15-8 Conversion Between HSV
and RGB Models
15-9 HLS Color Model
1 5-1 0 Color Selection
and Applications
Summary
Reierences
Exercises
16 Computer
Animation 583
14-1 Design of Animation Sequences
16-2 General Computer-Animation
Functions
16-3 Raster Animations
16-4 Computer-Animation Languages
16-5 Key-Frame Systems
Morphing
Simulating Accelerations
16-6 Motion Specifications
Direct Motion Specification
Goal-Directed Systems
Kinematics and Dynamics
Color Models and Color Summary
A.p ,d i cations 564 References Exercises 597
15-1 Properties of Light 565
15-2 Standard Primaries and the
Chromaticity Diagram 568 A Mathematics for Computer
XYZ Color Model 569 Graphics 599
CIE Chromaticity Diagram
569 A-1 Coordinate-Reference Frames 600
1 5-3 Intuitive Color Concepts 571 Two-Dimensional Cartesian
15-4 RGB Color Model
15-5 YIQ Color Model
572 Reference Frames 600
5 74 Polar Coordinates in the xy Plane
Three-Dimensional Cartesian
Reference Frames
Three-Dimensional Curvilinear
Coordinate Systems
Solid Angle
A-2 Points and Vectors
Vector Addition and Scalar
Multiplication
Scalar Product of Two Vectors
Vector Product of Two Vectors
A-3 Basis Vectors and the Metric Tensor
Orthonormal Basis
Metric Tensor
A-4 Matrices
Matrix Transpose
Determinant of a Matrix
Matrix Inverse
Complex Numbers
Quaternions
Nonparametric Representations
Parametric Representations
Numerical Methods
Solving Sets of Linear Equations
Finding Roots of Nonlinear
Equations
Evaluating Integrals
Fitting CUN~Sto Data Sets
Scalar Multiplication and Matrix
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Addition 612
Matrix Multiplication 612
INDEX

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