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Tuesday, September 28, 2010

English Grammar for The Utterly Confused











PART 1 WELCOME TO GRAMMARLAND 1
Chapter 1 Parts of Speech 3
Adjectives 4
Adverbs 5
Conjunctions 7
Interjections 7
Nouns 8
Prepositions 9
Pronouns 9
Verbs 12
It’s a Wrap 13
Test Yourself 14
Chapter 2 Using Pronouns Correctly 19
Overview of Pronoun Case 20
Using the Nominative Case 20
Using the Objective Case 21
Using the Possessive Case 22
Three Other Rules for Using Pronouns 23
Use Correct Pronoun Reference 24
The Generic Masculine Pronoun 26
Using Who, Which, That 26
It’s a Wrap 27
Test Yourself 27
Chapter 3 Using Verbs Correctly 31
Overview of Verb Functions 32
The Six Verb Tenses 32
Regular and Irregular Verbs 33
How to Use Tenses 37
Active and Passive Voice 39
It’s a Wrap 40
Test Yourself 40
PART 2 USAGE AND ABUSAGE 45
Chapter 4 Using Adjectives and Adverbs Correctly 47
Is It an Adjective or an Adverb? 48
Positive, Comparative, and Superlative Degrees of Comparisons 49
Comparing with Adjectives and Adverbs 51
Using Predicate Adjectives after Linking Verbs 52
Double Negatives 54
It’s a Wrap 55
Test Yourself 55
Chapter 5 Agreement: Matching Sentence Parts 61
Like Peas in a Pod 62
A Singular Subject Must Have a Singular Verb 63
A Plural Subject Must Have a Plural Verb 65
Collective Nouns and Indefinite Pronouns 66
Special Problems in Agreement 69
Agreement of Pronouns and Antecedents 70
It’s a Wrap 71
Test Yourself 71
Chapter 6 The 25 Most Common Usage Problems 77
Top Trouble Spots in Writing 78
Most Common Grammar and Usage Errors 79
Most Common Sentence Errors 83
Most Common Spelling Errors 83
Most Common Punctuation Errors 92
Most Common Capitalization Errors 93
Most Common Proofreading Errors 93
Improve Your Writing, One Step at a Time 94
It’s a Wrap 94
Test Yourself 94
PART 3 SENTENCE SENSE 99
Chapter 7 Phrases and Clauses 101
Overview of Phrases 102
Prepositional Phrases 102
Appositives and Appositive Phrases 103
Verbal Phrases 103
Infinitive Phrases 104
Overview of Clauses 105
Dependent Clauses 105
It’s a Wrap 108
Test Yourself 108
Chapter 8 Writing Correct and Complete Sentences 115
What Is a Sentence? 116
The Four Different Sentence Functions 117
The Four Different Sentence Types 117
Choosing Sentence Types 120
Sentence Errors: Run-on Sentences and Comma Splices 121
Sentence Errors: Fragments 122
It’s a Wrap 124
Test Yourself 124
Chapter 9 Sentence Coordination and Subordination 131
Coordinating Sentence Parts 132
Subordinating Sentence Parts 134
Coordination versus Subordination 136
Parallel Structure 137
It’s a Wrap 137
Test Yourself 137
PART 4 A WRITER’S TOOLS 145
Chapter 10 Punctuation 147
Apostrophes 148
Brackets 149
Colons 150
Commas 150
Dashes 153
Ellipsis 153
Exclamation Marks 154
Hyphens 154
Parentheses 154
Periods 155
Question Marks 155
Quotation Marks 155
Semicolons 156
Slashes 156
It’s a Wrap 157
Test Yourself 157
Chapter 11 Capitalization and Abbreviations 163
Avoiding Capital Offenses: The Rules of Capitalization 164
Capitalize Names and Titles 164
Capitalize Names of Places and Events 167
Capitalize Names of Languages and Religions 167
Capitalize Proper Adjectives and Product Names 168
Capitalize Names of Organizations, Institutions, Courses, and Famous Buildings 169
Capitalize Names of Days, Months, and Holidays 169
Capitalize Time and Other Proper Nouns 170
Capitalize the First Word of . . . 170
Good Things Come in Small Packages: The Rules of Abbreviations 172
It’s a Wrap 174
Test Yourself 175
PART 5 STRUTTIN’ YOUR STUFF WITH STYLE 181
Chapter 12 Developing Your Own Writing Style 183
What is Style in Writing? 184
The Elements of Style 185
Audience and Style 187
Purpose and Style 188
Developing Your Style 189
It’s a Wrap 190
Test Yourself 190
Chapter 13 Diction and Conciseness 197
What is Diction? 198
Levels of Diction 198
Choosing the Appropriate Level of Diction 200
Less Is More: Be Concise 201
Three Ways to Write Concise Sentences 203
It’s a Wrap 206
Test Yourself 206
Chapter 14 Words and Expressions to Avoid 211
Use Nonbiased Language 212
Replace Clich├ęs with Fresh Expressions 214
Avoid Empty Language 215
George Orwell on Style 217
It’s a Wrap 218
Test Yourself 218
Index 225

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