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Thursday, January 19, 2012

ASEAN Identity and Ethnic Relations in Southeast Asia Racializing Chineseness






Contents
1 Racializing Chineseness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Research Problematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.1 Identity, Hybridity, and Multiple Chineseness . . . . . . . 3
1.2.2 Ethno-Racialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.3 Cultural Contact, Positions and Ethnic Relations . . . . . 12
1.2.4 Community, Economic Identity and Racializing
Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.2.5 Ethnic Policies and the State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.3 Country Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.3.1 Rethinking Assimilation and Chineseness in Thailand . . 22
1.3.2 One Face, Many Masks: The Chinese in Singapore . . . . 22
1.3.3 “Sama Makan tak Sama Makan”: The Chinese
in Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.3.4 Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Chinese
in Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.3.5 Half Chinese or Three Quarters Chinese: The
Chinese in Burma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.3.6 A Love-Hate Relationship: The Chinese in Vietnam . . . 25
1.3.7 Hybridization and Chineseness in the Philippines . . . . . 26
1.4 Research Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2 Rethinking Assimilation and Chineseness in Thailand . . . . . . . . 31
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.2 History of the Chinese in Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.2.1 Perception of the Early Chinese Immigrants . . . . . . . 32
2.2.2 Rapid Expansion of the Chinese Community
in the Nineteenth Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.2.3 The Character of the Chinese Society . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.2.4 The Chinese as the Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.2.5 Discriminatory Policies Towards the Chinese . . . . . . . 37
2.3 Assimilation and the Chinese in Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.4 Bilingualism and Bicultural Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.5 Socio-Economic Organizations and Occupational Differentiation . 45
2.6 Religion, Tradition and Ethnic Intermarriage . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.7 The Rise of China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3 One Face, Many Masks: The Chinese in Singapore . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.2 History of the Chinese in Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.2.1 Economic Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.2.2 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.2.3 Community Organization and Structure . . . . . . . . . . 62
3.2.4 Segregation and the Use of Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.2.5 Religious Beliefs and Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.2.6 Relationships to Host Country, Homeland
and Other Diasporic Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.3 Ethnicity in Flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.3.1 Ethnic Membership by Ascription . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.3.2 Religious Bifurcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.3.3 Language and Education as Contested Terrain . . . . . . 74
3.3.4 Between Generations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
3.3.5 Community Fragmentation and Disembedding . . . . . . 80
4 Sama Makan tak Sama Makan: The Chinese in Malaysia . . . . . . 83
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.2 Chinese Migration to Malaya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.2.1 Economic Involvement of the Chinese . . . . . . . . . . 84
4.2.2 Colonial Policy Affecting the Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4.2.3 Political Outlook of the Early Chinese Migrants . . . . . 87
4.2.4 The Japanese Occupation and the Growing Racial Divide 88
4.2.5 The Federation of Malaya and its Implications
for the Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.2.6 Sino-Malay Relations During the Communist Insurgency 90
4.2.7 Political Re-Orientation by the Chinese . . . . . . . . . . 91
4.2.8 Independence and Racial Riots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
4.2.9 New Economic Policy and the Move Towards
a Malay State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
4.3 Ethnic Identity of the Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
4.3.1 Ethnicity by Ascription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
4.3.2 Religion and Food as Ethnic Markers . . . . . . . . . . . 98
4.3.3 Language and Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4.3.4 The Economy and Bumiputraism . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5 Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Chinese in Indonesia . . . . 111
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
5.2 Historical Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
5.2.1 Dutch Colonial Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Contents vii
5.2.2 Manipulation of Racial Politics – The Dutch
“Ethical Policy” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
5.2.3 Rising Chinese Nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
5.2.4 Managing the Chinese Community . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
5.2.5 Indonesian Nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
5.2.6 Japanese Occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
5.2.7 Post War Independence Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
5.2.8 The Legal Status of the Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
5.2.9 Political Involvement by the Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . 121
5.2.10 Sukarno’s Guided Democracy (1958–1965) . . . . . . . . 122
5.2.11 Chinese Under Suharto “New Order” . . . . . . . . . . . 124
5.3 Contemporary Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
5.3.1 Ethnicity as Discourse: Situating the Chinese
in Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
5.3.2 Chinese Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
5.3.3 Multiple Chineseness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
5.3.4 Generational Differences and Their Impact
on Chinese Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
5.3.5 Ethnic Discrimination and Prejudice . . . . . . . . . . . 135
5.3.6 After Suharto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
5.3.7 Chinese Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
6 Half-Chinese or Three-Quarters Chinese: The Chinese
in Contemporary Burma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
6.2 The Chinese in Burma: A Historical Overview . . . . . . . . . . . 148
6.2.1 Growth of the Chinese Community in Burma . . . . . . . 148
6.2.2 Economic Position of the Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
6.2.3 The Chinese Community in the Post War Era . . . . . . . 151
6.3 Constructing the Logic of Being Chinese in Burma . . . . . . . . 155
6.3.1 Economic Identity and Racialization . . . . . . . . . . . 157
6.4 Long Sleeve and Short Sleeve Chinese: Intra-Ethnic
Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
6.5 Identity Maintenance, Ethnic Relations and the State . . . . . . . 167
7 A Love-Hate Relationship: The Chinese in Vietnam . . . . . . . . . 175
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
7.2 History of the Chinese in Vietnam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
7.2.1 Early Migration of the Chinese to Vietnam . . . . . . . . 175
7.2.2 Chinese Pattern of Settlement in Vietnam . . . . . . . . . 176
7.2.3 Impact of the French Colonization on the Ethnic Chinese 176
7.2.4 Pacific War Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
7.2.5 Post Independence Period in North Vietnam . . . . . . . 179
7.2.6 Nationalism in South Vietnam and its Effects
on the Ethnic Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
7.2.7 Demonstrations by the Ethnic Chinese . . . . . . . . . . 181
7.2.8 The Fall of Saigon and its Effect on the Chinese
Business Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
7.2.9 Deteriorating Relations Between China and Vietnam . . . 184
7.2.10 Chinese Invasion of Vietnam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
7.2.11 Revival and Control of Ethnic Chinese Private Businesses 187
7.3 Contemporary Vietnam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
7.3.1 Inter-Ethnic Relations, Differentiation and Discrimination 188
7.3.2 Chinese Identity and Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
7.3.3 Primacy and Politics of Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
7.3.4 Generational Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
7.3.5 Cultural Similarities and Cultural Differences . . . . . . 195
7.3.6 Occupational Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
7.3.7 Community Identification and Associations . . . . . . . . 198
8 Hybridization and Chineseness in the Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . 201
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
8.2 Chinese During the Spanish Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
8.2.1 Segregation of the Chinese Population . . . . . . . . . . 202
8.2.2 Massacres and Expulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
8.2.3 Conversion, Inter-Marriage and the Chinese
Mestizo Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
8.2.4 The Influx of Chinese Immigrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
8.2.5 Anti-Chinese Sentiment and the Development
of a Minority Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
8.2.6 The American Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
8.2.7 Socio-Economic and Political Situation of the Chinese . . 205
8.2.8 The Chinese During the Japanese Occupation . . . . . . . 206
8.2.9 Independent Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
8.2.10 Mass Naturalization of the Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
8.3 Primordialism and Identity Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
8.3.1 Chinese Language and Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
8.3.2 Chinese Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
8.3.3 Chinese Values and Cultural Content . . . . . . . . . . . 217
8.3.4 Heterogeneous Chineseness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
8.3.5 Generational Gap and Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . 219
8.3.6 Occupational Differentiation and Complementary
Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
8.3.7 Ethnic Stereotypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
8.3.8 Religion and Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
8.3.9 Community and Cultural Institutions . . . . . . . . . . . 228
9 Conclusion: Whither Chineseness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
9.1 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
9.2 Whither Chineseness: The Rise of China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265


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