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Monday, December 12, 2011

Basic Circuit Analysis






Contents
Chapter 1 BASIC CONCEPTS ............................................................ 1
Digit Grouping .................................................................... 1
International System of Units ......................................................
Electric Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Dependent Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Power ............................................................................. 5
Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1
Electric Current
1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
.
Chapter 2 RESISTANCE ................................................................... 17
Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Temperature Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Resistors ........................................................................... 19
Resistor Power Absorption ........................................................ 19
Nominal Values and Tolerances ................................................... 19
Color Code ........................................................................ 20
Open and Short Circuits ........................................................... 20
Internal Resistance ................................................................. 20
Chapter 3 SERIES AND PARALLEL DC CIRCUITS .................................. 31
31
Kirchhoffs Voltage Law and Series DC Circuits ................................... 31
Voltage Division ................................................................... 32
Kirchhoffs Current Law and Parallel DC Circuits ................................. 32
Current Division ................................................................... 34
Kilohm-Milliampere Method ...................................................... 34
Branches. Nodes. Loops. Meshes. Series- and Parallel-Connected Components . . . . .
Chapter 4 DC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS ..................................................... 54
Cramer’s Rule ..................................................................... 54
Calculator Solutions ............................................................... 55
Source Transform at io n s ............................................................ 56
Mesh Analysis ..................................................................... 56
Loop Analysis ..................................................................... 57
Nodal Analysis .................................................................... 58
Dependent Sources and Circuit Analysis ........................................... 59
Chapter 5 DC EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS. NETWORK THEOREMS. AND
BRIDGE CIRCUITS ........................................................... 82
Introduction ....................................................................... 82
Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems ................................................ 82
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem ............................................... 84
Superposition Theorem ............................................................ 84
Millman’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Y-A and A-Y Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Bridge Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Chapter 6 OPERATIONAL-AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS .................................. 112
Introduction ....................................................................... 112
Op-Amp Operation ................................................................ 112
Popular Op-Amp Circuits ......................................................... 114
Circuits with Multiple Operational Amplifiers ..................................... 116
Chapter 7 PSPICE DC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS ........................................... 136
Introduction ....................................................................... 136
Basic Statements 136
Dependent Sources ................................................................ 138
. DC and .PRINT Contro! Statements .............................................. 139
Restrictions ........................................................................ 140
...................................................................
Chapter 6 CAPACITORS AND CAPACITANCE ....................................... 153
Introduction ....................................................................... 153
Capacitance ........................................................................ 153
Capacitor Construction ............................................................ 153
Total Capacitance ................................................................. 154
Energy Storage .................................................................... 155
Time-Varying Voltages and Currents ..............................................
Capacitor Current ................................................................. 156
Single-Capacitor DC-Excited Circuits .............................................. 156
155
RC Timers and Oscillators ......................................................... 157
Chapter 9 INDUCTORS. INDUCTANCE. AND PSPICE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
In trod uc tion .......................................................................
Magnetic Flux .....................................................................
Inductance and Inductor Construction .............................................
Inductor Voltage and Current Relation ............................................
Total Inductance ..................................................................
Energy Storage ....................................................................
Single-Inductor DC-Excited Circuits ...............................................
PSpice Transient Analysis .........................................................
174
174
174
175
175
176
177
177
177
Chapter 10 SINUSOIDAL ALTERNATING VOLTAGE AND CURRENT . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Introduction ....................................................................... 194
Sine and Cosine Waves ............................................................ 195
Phase Relations .................................................................... 197
Average Value ..................................................................... 198
Resistor Sinusoidal Response ...................................................... 198
Inductor Sinusoidal Response ...................................................... 199
Capacitor Sinusoidal Response .................................................... 200
Effective or RMS Values ........................................................... 198
Chapter 11 COMPLEX ALGEBRA AND PHASORS .................................... 217
Introduction ....................................................................... 217
Imaginary Numbers ............................................................... 217
Complex Numbers and the Rectangular Form ..................................... 218
Polar Form ........................................................................ 219
Phasors ............................................................................ 221
Chapter 12 BASIC AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS. IMPEDANCE. AND ADMITTANCE 232
Introduction ....................................................................... 232
Phasor-Domain Circuit Elements .................................................. 232
AC Series Circuit Analysis ......................................................... 234
Impedance ......................................................................... 234
Voltage Division ................................................................... 236
AC Parallel Circuit Analysis ....................................................... 237
Admittance ........................................................................ 238
Current Division ................................................................... 239
Chapter 13 MESH. LOOP. NODAL. AND PSPICE ANALYSES OF AC CIRCUITS 265
Introduction ....................................................................... 265
Source Transformations ............................................................ 265
Mesh and Loop Analyses .......................................................... 265
Nodal Analysis .................................................................... 267
PSpice AC Analysis ................................................................ 268
Chapter 14 AC EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS. NETWORK THEOREMS. AND
BRIDGE CIRCUITS ........................................................... 294
Introduction ....................................................................... 294
Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems ................................................ 294
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem ............................................... 295
Superposition Theorem ............................................................ 295
AC Y-A and A-Y Transformations ................................................. 296
AC Bridge Circuits ................................................................ 296
Chapter 15 POWER IN AC CIRCUITS ................................................... 324
Introduction ....................................................................... 324
Circuit Power Absorption ......................................................... 324
Wattmeters ........................................................................ 325
Reactive Power .................................................................... 326
Complex Power and Apparent Power .............................................. 326
Power Factor Correction .......................................................... 327
Chapter 16 TRANSFORMERS ............................................................. 349
Introduction ....................................................................... 349
Right-Hand Rule .................................................................. 349
Dot Convention ................................................................... 350
The Ideal Transformer ............................................................. 350
The Air-Core Transformer ......................................................... 352
The Autotransformer .............................................................. 354
PSpice and Transformers .......................................................... 356
Chapter 17 THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS ................................................... 384
Introduction ....................................................................... 384
Subscript Notation ................................................................ 384
Three-Phase Voltage Generation ................................................... 384
Generator Winding Connections ................................................... 385
Phase Sequence .................................................................... 386
Balanced Y Circuit ................................................................ 387
Balanced A Load .................................................................. 389
Parallel Loads ..................................................................... 390
Power ............................................................................. 391
Three-Phase Power Measurements ................................................. 391
Unbalanced Circuits ............................................................... 393
PSpice Analysis of Three-Phase Circuits ........................................... 393
~-
~ ~~
INDEX ........................................................................... 415

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