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Grid Computing for Electromagnetics








Contents
Acknowledgments xi
Introduction xiii
Grid Computing: What Is It? xiii
Grid Computing: Who Is Who? xv
Grid Computing: An Opportunity for Electromagnetics Research xv
How to Read This Book xvii
A Final Note xviii
References xviii
CHAPTER 1
General Concepts on Grids 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Parallel and Distributed Architectures 2
1.3 Parallel and Distributed Topologies 5
1.4 Parallel and Distributed Programming 7
1.4.1 Message Passing 8
1.4.2 Shared-Memory Programming 9
1.4.3 Concluding Remarks: Programming Paradigms and
1.4.3 Parallel Architectures 10
1.5 Performance Assessment 10
1.6 Web Computing 11
1.7 Computational Grids 14
1.7.1 Introduction 14
1.7.2 What Is a Grid? 15
1.7.3 Grid Architecture 17
1.7.4 Grid Middleware 19
1.7.5 Applications 20
1.8 Conclusions 21
References 21
CHAPTER 2
Enabling Technologies and Dedicated Tools 23
2.1 Introduction 23
2.2 Enabling Technologies: Object Orientation 24
2.2.1 Object Orientation for Software Engineering 24
2.2.2 Object Orientation for Enabling Technologies 25
2.2.3 CORBA 26
2.2.4 Java 27
2.2.5 Object Orientation and Electromagnetic Simulators 28
2.2.6 Conclusions 29
2.3 Dedicated Tools: Grid Middleware 30
2.4 The Globus Toolkit: An Overview 30
2.5 The Globus Toolkit: The Globus Security Infrastructure 31
2.5.1 Authorization 32
2.5.2 Mutual Authentication 33
2.5.3 Single Sign On and Delegation 35
2.5.4 Other Services 37
2.6 The Globus Toolkit: The Resource Management Pillar 38
2.7 The Globus Toolkit: The Information Services Pillar 42
2.7.1 MDS Directory Service: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 43
2.7.2 MDS Information Model 43
2.8 The Globus Toolkit: The Data Management Pillar 46
2.8.1 Distributed Data Access and Management 46
2.8.2 Dataset Replicas Services 47
2.8.3 Conclusions 48
2.9 The Globus Tools API 48
2.10 The MPI with Globus 49
2.11 Dedicated Tools: Economy-Driven RM in Grids 51
2.12 Web-Based Technologies and Projects 51
2.13 Grid-Enabled HTC: Condor-G 53
References 53
CHAPTER 3
Building Up a Grid 57
3.1 Introduction 57
3.2 Recalling Globus Basic Concepts 58
3.3 Setting Up the Environment 60
3.3.1 Hardware Requirements 60
3.3.2 Software Requirements 60
3.3.3 Setting Up the Network 60
3.3.4 Before Installing Globus 61
3.4 Globus Installation 62
3.4.1 Downloading the Package 62
3.4.2 Installing the Toolkit 63
3.5 Globus Configuration 64
3.5.1 Authorization 65
3.5.2 Authentication 66
3.5.3 Using the Globus CA 66
3.5.4 Using a Local CA 68
3.6 Services Start Up 72
3.6.1 Resource Management 72
3.6.2 Information Services 72
3.6.3 Data Management 73
3.7 Introducing a New User to the Grid 74
3.7.1 Client Side 74
3.7.2 Server Side 74
3.8 Globus-Relevant Commands to Use the Grid 74
3.8.1 Authentication 75
3.8.2 Resource Management 75
3.8.3 Information Services 78
3.8.4 Data Management 80
3.9 Developing Grid-Enabled Applications 82
3.9.1 An Example with Globus API 83
3.10 Message Passing in a Grid Framework 85
3.11 Summary and Conclusions 87
References 87
CHAPTER 4
Applications: FDTD with MPI in Grid Environments 89
4.1 Introduction 89
4.2 The FDTD Approach: Theoretical Background 89
4.2.1 Yee’s Algorithm 89
4.2.2 Stability of the Algorithm 92
4.2.3 Numerical Dispersion 92
4.2.4 Excitation and Absorbing Boundary Conditions 93
4.2.5 CPU Time and Memory Requirements 95
4.3 Parallel FDTD 96
4.3.1 A Simple and Portable Parallel Algorithm 96
4.4 Migration Toward Computational Grids 108
4.4.1 Introduction 108
4.4.2 Practical Guidelines 109
4.4.3 Pthread Libraries and MPICH-G2 110
4.5 Numerical Performance 111
4.5.1 Performance Evaluation of Parallel Distributed FDTD 111
4.5.2 MPICH-G2 Performance Evaluation 112
4.5.3 Benchmarking Parallel FDTD on a Grid 115
4.6 Remarkable Achievements 116
4.7 Conclusions 117
Acknowledgments 117
References 117
CHAPTER 5
CAE of Aperture-Antenna Arrays 121
5.1 Introduction 121
5.2 Numerical Techniques for the Analysis of Flange-Mounted
Rectangular Apertures 123
5.2.1 Theoretical Background 123
5.2.2 Approaches Based on Waveguide Modes 125
5.2.3 Approaches Based on Gegenbauer’s Polynomials 127
5.3 A Tool for the CAE of Rectangular Aperture Antenna Arrays 128
5.3.1 Evaluation of the Horns’ Scattering Matrix 129
5.3.2 Evaluation of the Aperture Array’s Scattering Matrix 130
5.3.3 Evaluation of the Scattering Matrix at External Ports 132
5.3.4 Evaluation of the Radiation Pattern 134
5.4 Parallel CAE of Aperture Arrays 135
5.4.1 Preliminary Analysis 136
5.4.2 Parallelization 139
5.4.3 Results on MIMD Supercomputing Platforms 142
5.5 Migration Toward Grid Environments 144
5.5.1 Supporting Cooperative Engineering with GC 145
5.6 Conclusions 150
Acknowledgments 151
References 151
CHAPTER 6
Wireless Radio Base Station Networks 153
6.1 Introduction 153
6.2 Foundations of Cellular Systems 154
6.2.1 General Considerations 154
6.2.2 Frequency Reuse 155
6.2.3 Capacity and Traffic 157
6.2.4 How a Cellular System Connects Users 158
6.2.5 BS Antennas 158
6.3 Key Factors for Current and Future Wireless Communications 160
6.3.1 Power Control 160
6.3.2 Managing with More and More Users 161
6.3.3 System Standardization and Interoperability 161
6.3.4 Concerns in the Public Opinion 162
6.4 Planning Wireless Networks 162
6.5 An Integrated System for Optimum Wireless Network Planning 163
6.5.1 Overview of the System 164
6.6 A Candidate Architecture for an Effective ISNOP 169
6.7 GC and Its Role in the ISNOP 170
6.8 Wireless Network Planning with GC 170
6.8.1 Data Communication with GC in a Simplified ISNOP 173
6.8.2 ENC Module Simulation 178
6.9 Conclusions 180
Acknowledgments 181
References 181
CHAPTER 7
Conclusions and Future Trends 183
7.1 GC: Benefits and Limitations 183
7.2 GC Trends 184
References 185
APPENDIX A
Useful UNIX/Linux Hints 187
A.1 UNIX/Linux Operating System: An Overview 187
A.2 UNIX/Linux: The Architecture 188
A.3 The File System 188
A.3.1 Introduction 188
A.3.2 File System Relevant Commands 189
A.3.3 Pathnames 191
A.3.4 System Calls for File Management 192
A.3.5 Permissions 192
A.4 Processes 193
A.5 Administration 194
A.6 The Shell 194
A.6.1 Introduction 194
A.6.2 Background Command Execution 196
A.6.3 Redirection 196
A.6.4 Pipes 197
A.6.5 Environment Variables 197
References 198
APPENDIX B
Foundations of Cryptography and Security 199
B.1 Introduction 199
B.2 Confidentiality and Cryptography 200
B.3 Digital Signature 202
B.4 Certificates and Certification Authorities 203
References 205
APPENDIX C
Foundations for Electromagnetic Theory 207
C.1 Maxwell’s Equations in the Time Domain 207
C.2 Helmholtz and Dispersion Equations 208
C.3 TE and TM Modes 209
C.4 Fourier Representation of Green’s Functions 210
C.5 The Far-Field Approximation 212
Reference 213
APPENDIX D
List of Useful Web Sites 215
Glossary 217
List of Acronyms 227
Selected Bibliography 233
About the Authors 239
Index 241

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