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Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Email Virus Protection Handbook













Contents
xiii
Introduction xxvi
Chapter 1: Understanding the Threats:
E-mail Viruses, Trojans, Mail Bombers,
Worms, and Illicit Servers 1
Introduction 2
Essential Concepts 3
Servers, Services, and Clients 3
Authentication and Access Control 3
Hackers and Attack Types 4
What Do Hackers Do? 4
Attack Types 5
Overview of E-mail Clients and Servers 7
Understanding a Mail User Agent and a
Mail Transfer Agent 7
The Mail Delivery Agent 9
When Are Security Problems Introduced? 10
History of E-mail Attacks 10
The MTA and the Robert Morris Internet Worm 11
MDA Attacks 12
Analyzing Famous Attacks 12
Case Study 14
Learning from Past Attacks 14
Viruses 15
Worms 15
Types of Worms 16
Trojans 17
Illicit Servers 17
Differentiating between Trojans and
Illicit Servers 18
E-mail Bombing 19
Sniffing Attacks 19
Carnivore 20
Spamming and Security 21
Common Authoring Languages 22
Protecting Your E-mail 23
Protecting E-mail Clients 23
Third-party Applications 23
Encryption 24
Hash Encryption and Document Signing 27
Protecting the Server 27
Summary 28
FAQs 29
Chapter 2: Securing Outlook 2000 31
Introduction 32
Common Targets, Exploits, and Weaknesses 33
The Address Book 35
The Mail Folders 36
Visual Basic Files 37
Attacks Specific to This Client 38
No Attachment Security 38
Default Settings Are Not Secure 38
Zone Security 39
Word 2000 as the Outlook E-mail Editor 39
Security Updates 39
Enabling Filtering 42
Junk E-mail 42
Filtering Keywords 44
Mail Settings and Options 44
HTML Messages 45
Zone Settings 46
Attachment Security 48
Attachment Security After Applying Outlook
E-mail Security Update 51
Enabling S/MIME 54
Why You Should Use Public Key Encryption 56
Installing and Enabling Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) 57
Installing PGP 58
Understanding Public Key Encryption 62
Generating a Key Pair 65
Exchanging Keys 67
Key Distribution Sites 69
Summary 70
FAQs 71
Chapter 3: Securing Outlook Express 5.0 and
Eudora 4.3 75
Introduction 76
Outlook Express for Windows 76
Security Settings 77
Secure Mail 78
Security Zones 80
Attachments 82
Outlook Express for Macintosh 85
Junk Mail Filter 85
Message Rules 88
Attachments 89
Case Study: Automated Virus Scanning of
Mail Attachments 90
Eudora for Windows and Macintosh 91
Security 91
Attachments 91
Filtering 93
Enabling PGP for both Outlook Express and Eudora 95
Sending and Receiving PGP-Secured Messages 96
Eudora for Windows 97
Outlook Express for Windows 101
Eudora for Macintosh 103
Outlook Express for Macintosh 105
Automatic Processing of Messages 107
File Attachments and PGP 108
Case Study: Securing File Attachments with PGP 109
Summary 113
FAQs 115
Chapter 4: Web-based Mail Issues 119
Introduction 120
Choices in Web-based E-mail Services 121
Why Is Web-based E-mail So Popular? 122
The Cost of Convenience 122
Specific Weaknesses 124
Internet Architecture and the Transmission Path 124
Reading Passwords 126
Case Study 128
Specific Sniffer Applications 131
Code-based Attacks 133
The PHF Bug 134
Hostile Code 135
Taking Advantage of System Trusts 135
Cracking the Account with a “Brute Force” or Dictionary
Application 136
Physical Attacks 137
Cookies and Their Associated Risks 138
Solving the Problem 139
Using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) 139
Secure HTTP 139
Practical Implementations 140
Local E-mail Servers 141
Using PGP with Web-based E-mail 141
Making Yourself Anonymous 142
Summary 143
FAQs 144
Chapter 5: Client-Side Anti-Virus Applications 147
Introduction 148
McAfee VirusScan 5 150
Availability of VirusScan 151
Updates of Virus Definition Files 152
Installation of VirusScan 5 152
Configuration of VirusScan 5 156
Norton AntiVirus 2000 163
Availability of Norton AntiVirus 2000 163
Updates of Norton AntiVirus 2000
Definition Files 164
Installation of Norton AntiVirus 2000 165
Configuration of Norton AntiVirus 2000 167
Trend Micro PC-cillin 2000 176
Availability of Trend Micro PC-cillin 2000 176
Updates of PC-cillin Virus Definition Files 177
Installation of Trend Micro PC-cillin 2000 178
Configuration of Trend Micro PC-cillin 2000 181
Trend PC-cillin 2000 Configuration Settings 185
Trend Micro PC-cillin 2000 Links 188
Summary 189
FAQs 190
Chapter 6: Mobile Code Protection 195
Introduction 196
Dynamic E-mail 196
Active Content 197
Taking Advantage of Dynamic E-mail 197
Composing an HTML E-mail 198
Inserting Your Own HTML File 198
Sending an Entire Web Page 200
Dangers 200
No Hiding Behind the Firewall 201
Mobile Code 201
Java 202
Security Model 203
Playing in the Sandbox 203
Playing Outside the Sandbox 205
Points of Weakness 205
Background Threads 206
Hogging System Resources 206
I Swear I Didn’t Send That E-mail 207
Scanning for Files 207
How Hackers Take Advantage 207
Spam Verification 207
Theft of Processing Power 208
Unscrupulous Market Research 208
Applets Are Not That Scary 208
Precautions You Can Take 208
JavaScript 211
Security Model 211
Points of Weakness 212
How Hackers Take Advantage 213
Web-Based E-mail Attacks 213
Are Plug-in Commands a Threat? 213
Social Engineering 213
Precautions to Take 214
ActiveX 215
Security Model 215
Safe for Scripting 216
Points of Weakness 217
How Hackers Can Take Advantage 218
Preinstalled ActiveX Controls 218
Bugs Open the Door 219
Intentionally Malicious ActiveX 219
My Mistake... 220
Trojan Horse Attacks 220
Precautions to Take 220
VBScript 221
Security Model 222
Points of Weakness 222
VBScript, Meet ActiveX 222
How Hackers Take Advantage 223
Social Engineering Exploits 223
VBScript-ActiveX Can Double Team Your Security 223
Precautions to Take 224
Summary 225
FAQs 226
Chapter 7: Personal Firewalls 227
Introduction 228
What Is a Personal Firewall? 228
Blocks Ports 230
Block IP Addresses 230
Access Control List (ACL) 231
Execution Control List (ECL) 232
Intrusion Detection 233
Personal Firewalls and E-mail Clients 234
Levels of Protection 235
False Positives 235
Network Ice BlackICE Defender 2.1 236
Installation 236
Configuration 239
E-mail and BlackICE 248
Aladdin Networks’ eSafe, Version 2.2 248
Installation 248
Configuration 252
E-mail and ESafe 269
Norton Personal Firewall 2000 2.0 269
Installation 270
Configuration 274
ZoneAlarm 2.1 283
Installation 284
Configuration 287
E-mail and ZoneAlarm 291
Summary 292
FAQs 292
Chapter 8: Securing Windows 2000 Advanced
Server and Red Hat Linux 6 for E-mail Services 295
Introduction 296
Updating the Operating System 296
Microsoft Service Packs 296
Red Hat Linux Updates and Errata Service Packages 297
Disabling Unnecessary Services and Ports 299
Windows 2000 Advanced Server—Services to Disable 299
The Server Service 300
Internet Information Services (IIS) 302
Red Hat Linux—Services to Disable 304
Inetd.conf 304
Rlogin 305
Locking Down Ports 305
Well-Known and Registered Ports 306
Determining Ports to Block 308
Blocking Ports in Windows 308
Blocking Ports in Linux 310
Inetd Services 310
Stand-Alone Services 310
Maintenance Issues 311
Microsoft Service Pack Updates, Hot Fixes,
and Security Patches 312
Case Study 313
Red Hat Linux Errata: Fixes and Advisories 314
Case Study 316
Windows Vulnerability Scanner
(ISS System Scanner) 317
Linux Vulnerability Scanner (WebTrends
Security Analyzer) 320
Logging 325
Windows 2000 Advanced Server 325
Linux 325
Common Security Applications 326
Firewall Placement 327
Summary 330
FAQs 331
Chapter 9: Microsoft Exchange Server 5.5 333
Introduction 334
Securing the Exchange Server from Spam 334
Configuring the IMS To Block E-mail Attacks 335
Exchange and Virus Attacks: Myths and Realities 341
Learning from Recent Attacks 343
Case Study: Preparing for Virus Attacks 345
Exchange Maintenance 347
Service Packs 347
Plug-ins and Add-ons 351
Third-party Add-ons 351
Microsoft Utilities 352
Content Filtering 353
Case Study: Content Scanning 356
Attachment Scanning 357
Recovery 359
Backing Up Data 360
Restoring Data 363
Summary 363
FAQs 365
Chapter 10: Sendmail and IMAP Security 367
Introduction 368
Sendmail and Security: A Contradiction in Terms? 368
Sendmail’s History 368
Threats to SendMail Security 370
Anatomy of a Buffer Overflow 370
A Buffer Overflow Illustrated 371
Sendmail and the Root Privilege 372
Fixes 373
Stay Current 373
Stay Informed 374
Protect Your Resources 375
Minimize Risk 375
Alternatives: Postfix and Qmail 377
Postfix 377
Qmail 378
Comparing Your Options 379
Configuring Sendmail 380
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) 381
The IMAP Advantage 381
Understanding IMAP Implementations 383
UW IMAP 383
Cyrus IMAP 384
One IMAP, Many Choices 385
Administering the Server 385
The Users 385
The Mail Store 386
Protecting the Messages 387
Strengthening Authentication 387
Securing Access 388
From the Client Side 390
IMAP Summary 390
Recovery 391
Backing Up Data 392
Restoring Data 393
The Bottom Line on Backup 393
Summary 394
FAQs 394
Chapter 11: Deploying Server-side E-mail
Content Filters and Scanners 397
Introduction 398
Overview of Content Filtering 398
Filtering by Sender 403
Filtering by Receiver 403
Subject Headings and Message Body 404
Overview of Attachment Scanning 404
Attachment Size 407
Attachment Type (Visual Basic, Java, ActiveX) 407
McAfee GroupShield 408
Installation of GroupShield 408
Configuration 412
Specific Settings 418
Trend Micro ScanMail for Exchange Server 419
Installation of ScanMail 419
Configuration 421
Specific Settings 422
Additional ScanMail Offerings 424
Content Technologies’ MAILsweeper for Exchange 5.5 425
Installation of MAILsweeper 425
Configuration 427
Specific Settings 428
Firewall and E-mail Content Scanning 428
Content Technologies’ MIMEsweeper for
CheckPoint’s Firewall-1 429
Axent Raptor Firewall 430
Attack Detection and System Scanning 431
Attacks 431
Real-time, Third-party Services 433
Evinci 434
Securify 434
Summary 435
FAQs 435
Appendix: Secrets 437
Lesser-known Shortcuts 438
Under-documented Features and Functions 438
Disable an ActiveX Control 440
For Experts Only (Advanced features) 441
Web Pages on Mobile Code Security Topics 441
Outlook Web Access (OWA) 442
Using SendMail To Refuse E-mails with
the Love Letter Virus 442
Troubleshooting and Optimization Tips 444
Index 447

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