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Thursday, October 7, 2010

Basic English Grammar (2nd Ed)












PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION ........................................................................................ ix
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................... x
51 f .
Chapter 1 USING BEAND HAVE
. . . . . . . . . . : U f l - NOUN + IS + NOUN: SINGULAR ........................................................................ 2
NOUN +ARE + NOUN: PLURAL ...........................................................................4.
PRONOUN + BE + NOUN ...................................................................................6. ....
CONTRACTIONS WITH BE ................................................................................... 7
NEGATIVE WITH BE ................................................................................................. 8
BE + ADJECTIVE ........................... ..... ...................................................................1..0.. .
BE + A LOCATION ................................................ ..........................................1...6
SUMMARY: SENTENCE PATTERNS WITH BE ................................................. 20
YESNO QUESTIONS WITH BE ............................ . .........................................2..1..
QUESTIONS WITH BE: USING WHERE. ..........................................................2..4..
USING HAVE AND HAS ......................................................................................2..6.
USING MY, YOUR, HIS, HER, OUR, THEIR ...................................................... 27
USING THIS AND THAT ........................................................................................ 30
USING THESE AND THOSE. ..............................................................................3..1
ASKING QUESTIONS WITH WHATAND WHO +BE. ................................ .....3.. 2
.I?'
Chapter 2 EXPRESSING PRESENT TIME (PART I ) '17'1
. L
FORM AND BASIC MEANING OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE ...............4. 4
USING FREQUENCY ADVERBS: ALWAYS. USUALLY. OFTEN. SOMETIMES. SEL.DOM. R.4REL.Y. N E W . ......................................................4..6
USING FREQUENCY ADVERBS WITH BE .......................................................4..7. .
PRONUNCIATION OF FINAL -S: /Z/ AND /S/ ....................................................4.9..
SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION OF FINAL -ES ................... . ...............5 1
ADDING FINAL -S/-ES TO WORDS THAT END IN -Y .................................. . 1
IRREGULAR SINGULAR VERBS: HAS, DOES, GOES .......................................5. 2
SUMMARY: SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION OF -SAND -ES ..................5. 4
THE SIMPLE PRESENT . NEGATIVE .................................................................. 57
2-10 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: YESNO QUESTIONS .................................................. 6 I
2-1 1 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: ASKING INFORMATION QUESTIONS
WITH WHERE. .......................................................................................................6..4
2-12 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: ASKING INFORMATION QUESTIONS
WITH WHEN AND WHAT TIME .......................................................................6..6.. .
2-13 SUMMARY: INFORMATION QUESTIONS WITH BE AND DO ........................6 7
2-14 USING lTTO TALK ABOUT TIME ...................................................................7..2. ..
2-1 5 PREPOSITIONS OF TIME ......................................................................................7.3
2-16 USING ITTO TALK ABOUT THE WEATHER ...................................................7..4
Chapter 3 EXPRESSING PRESENT TIME (PART 2) " . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BE + JNG: THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE ...........................................8 4
SPELLING OF -ZNG .................. . .......................................................................8..7. ...
THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE. QUESTIONS. ....................................................8..9
THE SIMPLE PRESENT vs . THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE .............................. 92
NONACTION VERBS NOT USED IN THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE .............9 5
SEE, LOOKAT, WATCH, HEAR, AND LISTEN TO .........................................9..7.
NEED AND WANT + A NOUN OR AN .........................................9..8.
WOULD LIKE ............................ . .............................................................1..0..0.
WOULDLIKEvs. LJKE .........................................................................................1 01
THINK ABOUT AND THINK THAT. ................................................................1..0. 2
THERE + BE ..........................................................................................................1. 06
THERE + B E YESNO QUESTIONS ......................................... i .......................1. 07
THERE + B E ASKING QUESTIONS WITH HOWMANY ...............................1.0 9
PREPOSITIONS OF LOCATION. ........................... ..... ........................................1...1
Chapter 4 NOUNS AND PRONOUNS
NOUNS: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS .................................................................1..2..7.
ADJECTIVE + NOUN ...........................................................................................1..2. 9
SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS .......................................... 131
NOUNS: SINGULAR AND PLURAL ................................................................... 134
NOUNS: IRREGULAR PLURAL FORMS .........................................................1..3..9.
NOUNS: COUNT AND NONCOUNT ...............................................................1..4..1
USINGANvs .A ................................... ...............................................................1..4..3
USING A/AN vs . SOME ........................................................................................1.. 4 4
MEASUREMENTS WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS ............................................1..5.0
USING THE. ........................................................................................................1..5.6..
USING 0 (NO ARTICLE) TO MAKE GENERALIZATIONS ...........................1..6 0
USING SOME AND ANY .....................................................................................1. 6 1
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: SOMETHING, SOMEONE,
ANYTHING, ANYONE ......................................................................................... 163
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: NOTHING AND NO ONE .................................... 164
Chapter 5 EXPRESSING PAST TIME .v. ..
Chapter 6
USING BE: PAST TIME ........................ ... ....................................................... 171
PAST OF BE: NEGATIVE ..................................................................................... 172
PAST OF BE: QUESTIONS ..............................................................................1..7.3.. ..
THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE: USING -ED ................. . ......................................1. 77
PAST TIME WORDS: YESTERDAY, LAST, AND AGO ................................. 178
PRONUNCIATION OF -ED: It/, Id/, AND ladl .....................................................1 80
SPELLING OF -ED VERBS ..................... .......................................................... 183
SPELLING OF -ED AND -ING: TWO-SYLLABLE VERBS ...............................1 86
THE SIMPLE PAST: IRREGULAR VERBS .................... ... ................................... 190
THE SIMPLE PAST: NEGATIVE ............ .. ........................................................1 92
THE SIMPLE PAST: YES/NO QUESTIONS ..................................................... 9
MORE IRREGULAR VERBS .................................................................................... 198
THE SIMPLE PAST: USING WHERE, WHEN, WHAT TIME,
AND WHY ............................................................. ........ .......................................2.0..3..
QUESTIONS WITH WHAT ..................... .... ...............................................2..0..6.
QUESTIONS WITH WHO .................................................................................2..0 9
ASKING ABOUT THE MEANING OF A WORD ............................................... 212
MORE IRREGULAR VERBS ................ .. .........................................................2..1..3
BEFORE AND AFTER IN TIME CLAUSES ...................................................... 216
WHEN IN TIME CLAUSES ............................ ... ...........................................2.1..9.
. .. . -8
EXPRESSING FUTURE TlME
FUTURE TIME: USING BE GOING TO. ................:... ... :.L ...L . ........................2.3. 1
WORDS USED FOR PAST TIME AND FUTURE TIME ..................................2..3. 5
USING A COUPLE OF OR A FEW WITH AGO (PAST) AND
LV (EUTURE) ....................................................................................................... 238
USING TODAY, TONIGHT, AND THIS + MORNING,
AFTERNOON, EVENING, WEEK, MONTH, YEAR .......................................2.3..9
FUTURE TIME: USING WILL. ............................................................................2. 42
ASKING QUESTIONS WITH WIU. ..................................................................2..4. 3
VERB SUMMARY: PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE ................................... ....2..4 5
VERB SUMMARY: FORMS OF BE ..................................................................2..4..6
USING WHAT + A FORM OF DO ............................... .. .................................2..5. 1
MAYIMIGHTvs . WILL ........................................................................................2.5..3
MAYBE (ONE WORD) vs . MAYBE (TWO WORDS) ..................................... ....2. 55
FUTURE TIME CLAUSES WITH BEFORE, AFTER, AND WHEN ................2. 58
CLAUSES WITH IF .............................................................................................2..6. 0
EXPRESSING HABITUAL PRESENT WITH TIME CLAUSES AND
IF-CLAUSES .....................................................................................................2..6.3.. ....
MORE IRREGULAR VERBS ..............................................................................2..6.6.. .
MORE IRREGULAR VERBS ................... ... ...................................................2..7..0
Chapter 7 EXPRESSING ABILITY
USING CAN ..............................................................................................................2. 81
USING CAN: QUESTIONS ....................................................................................2. 82
USING KNOWHOW TO ........................................................................................2. 84
USING COULD: PAST OF CAN ............................................................................2. 85
USING VERY AND TOO + ADJECTIVE ............................................................. 287
USING TOO MANY AND TOO MUCH + NOUN ............................................... 290
USING TOO + ADJECTIVE + INKNITIW ......................................................2..9. 3
USING TOO + ADJECTIVE + FOR (SOMEONE) + INFINITIVE ..................... 294
USING ADJECTIVE + ENOUGH ........................................................................... 295
USING ENOUGH + NOUN AND MORE + NOUN ............................................. 297
USING ENOUGH + INFINITIVE ........................................................................... 299
USING BERBLB TO ..............................................................................................3. 01
POLITE QUESTIONS: MAYI. COULD I. AND CANI. .......................................3 02
POLITE QUESTIONS: COULD YOU AND WOULD YOU ................................, 304
IMPERATIVE SENTENCES ...................................................................................3. 07
USING TWO. TOO. AND TO ................................................................................3. 10
MORE ABOUT PREPOSITIONS: AT AND IN FOR LOCATIONS ....................3 11
MORE IRREGULAR VERBS .................................................................................... 321
Chapter 8 NOUNS . ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS . . ... > ., I - 1
MODIFYING NOUNS WITH ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS ......................... 325
WORD ORDER OF ADJECTIVES ................................................................3..2.9.
EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: ALL OF. MOST OF. SOME OF .............3.3 4
EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT ............... 336
EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTJ3Y ONE OF. NONE OF ..............................3..3.7
USING EVERY ...............................................................................................3..4..1
POSSESSIVE NOUNS ...................................................................................3.4..3..
POSSESSIVE: IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNS ..........................................3..4..5
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: MINE, YOURS. HIS. HERS,
OURS, THEIRS ....... ............... ...................................................................3..4..7
QUESTIONS WITH WHOS6 .......................................................................3..5..1
SUMMARY: USES OF THE APOSTROPHE ...............................................3..5.2..
SUMMARY: USES OF NOUNS .....................................................................3..5.5.
CONNECTED NOUNS: NOUN +AND/OR+ NOUN ..............................3..5..7
SUMMARY: USES OF ADJECTIVES ...........................................................3..6..0
SUMMARY.. PERSONAL PRONOUNS .........................................................3..6. 3
INDIRECT OBJECTS ....................................................................................3..6..4.
INDIRECT OBJECTS: USING FOR. ..........................................................3.6..7.. .
INDIRECT OBJECTS W m B UY,G ET, MAKE ............................ . ...........3 69
INDIRECT OBJECTS WITH EXFLAlN AND INTRODUCE .....................3. 70
MORE IRREGULAR VERBS ........................................................................3..7..5.
Chapter 9 MAKING COMPARISONS
COMPARISONS: USING THE SAME (AS). SIMILAR (TO).
AND DIFFERENT (PROM). .............................................................................3 79
COMPARISONS: USING LIKE AND ALIKE ................................................3. 82
THE COMPARATIVE: USING -ER AND MORE ........................ . ............3 83
USING AS ... AS; USING LESS ................................................................... 389
USING BUT ....................................................................................................3..9..3
USING VERBS AFTER BUT ........................................................................... 395
THE SUPERLATNE: USING -ESTAND MOST .........................................3. 98
USING ONE OF + SUPERLATIVE + PLURAL NOUN ................................ 405
ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS ..........................................................................4 11
MAKING COMPARISONS WITH ADVERBS ..............................................4 14
USING AS ...A S WITH ADVERBS ...............................................................4. 16
Chapter 10 EXPRESSING IDEAS WITH VERBS
USING SHOULD ..............................................................................................4..2 0
USING LET'S ..................................................................................................4..2 3
USING HAVE + INFINITIVE (HAS TOIHAVE TO) ....................................... 424
USING MUST ...................................................................................................4..2 7
MODAL AUXILIARIES .................................................................................... 430
SUMMARY CHART: MODAL AUXILIARIES AND
SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS ................................................................................. 431
THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AND THE PAST PROGRESSIVE ............. 434
USING WHILE WITH THE PAST PROGRESSIVE ...................................... 438
WHILE vs . WHEN IN PAST TIME CLAUSES ................................................4 38
SIMPLE PAST vs . PAST PROGRESSIVE ........................................................4. 0
USING HAVE BEEN (THE PRESENT PERFECT) .......................................4 4
USING SINCE-CLAUSES ................................................................................4. 46
FORM OF THE PRESENT PERFECT ............................................................4. 48
USING NEVBR WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT .......................................4 49
PRESENT PERFECT: QUESTIONS AND NEGATIVES ............................... 450
USING EVBR WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT .........................................4. 51
THE PRESENT PERFECT: QUESTIONS WITH HOW LONG .................... 453
PAST PARTICIPLES OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS ..........................4 55
Appendix 1 THE ENGUSH ALPHABET .................................................................................. AI
Appendix 2 NUMBERS .......................................................................................................... ~2
Appendlx 3 DAYS OF THE WEEK AND MONTHS OF THE YEAR ...................................... A3
Appendlx 4 WAYS OF SAYING ME TIME ........................................................................... A4
Appendix 5 IRREGULAR VERBS ........................................................................................... AS
INDEX ..............................................................................................................................I. NDEX 1

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