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Tuesday, January 8, 2013

Computer Systems Architecture - A Networking Approach





Preface  xiii
Preface to the first edition xv
Recommended lab sessions xxi
Part 1    Basic functions and facilities of a computer
Introduction: the hardware–software interface 3
1.1      Computer systems – the importance of networking 4
1.2      Hardware and software – mutual dependence 5
1.3      Programming your way into hardware – VHDL, a language for
electronic engineers 6
1.4      Systems administration – we all need to know 9
1.5      Voice, image and data – technological convergence 9
1.6      Windowing interfaces – WIMPs 11
1.7      The global Internet – connecting all the networks 13
1.8      Using the PC – a case study; more reasons to study CSA 16
The von Neumann Inheritance 23
2.1      Base 2 – the convenience of binary – 10110011100011110000 24
2.2      Stored program control – general-purpose machines 24
2.3      Instruction codes – machine action repertoire 26
2.4      Translation – compilers and assemblers 28
2.5      Linking – bringing it all together 28
2.6      Interpreters – executing high-level commands 30
2.7      Code sharing and reuse – let’s not write it all again! 31
2.8      Data codes – numeric and character 32
2.9      The operating system – Unix and Windows 36
2.10    Client–server computing – the way of the Net 40
2.11    Reconfigurable hardware – an alternative to fetch–execute 42
Functional units and the fetch–execute cycle 47
3.1      The naming of parts – CPU, memory, IO units 48
3.2      The CPU fetch–execute cycle – high-speed tedium 52
3.3      System bus – synchronous or asynchronous? 56
3.4      System clock – instruction cycle timing 59
3.5      Pre-fetching – early efforts to speed things up 61
3.6      Memory length – address width 63
3.7      Endian-ness – Microsoft vs. Unix, or Intel vs. Motorola? 65
3.8      Simple input–output – parallel ports 67
Building computers from logic: the control unit 73
4.1      Electronic Lego and logic – the advantage of modular units 74
4.2      Basic logic gates – truth tables for AND, OR, XOR and NOT 75
4.3      Truth tables and multiplexers – a simple but effective design tool 77
4.4      Programmable logic – reconfigurable logic chips 79
4.5      Traffic light controllers – impossible to avoid! 82
4.6      Circuit implementation from truth tables – some practical tips 83
4.7      Decoder logic – essential for control units and memories 85
4.8      CPU control unit – the ‘brain’ 87
4.9      Washing machine controllers – a simple CU 88
4.10    RISC vs. CISC decoding – in search of faster computers 91
Building computers from logic: the ALU 97
5.1      De Morgan’s equivalences – logical interchangeability 98
5.2      Binary addition – half adders, full adders, parallel adders 98
5.3      Binary subtraction – using two’s complement integer format 101
5.4      Binary shifting – barrel shifter 103
5.5      Integer multiplication – shifting and adding 105
5.6      Floating-point numbers – from very, very large to very, very small 108
Building computers from logic: the memory 117
6.1      Data storage – one bit at a time 118
6.2      Memory devices – memory modules for computers 120
6.3      Static memory – a lot of fast flip-flops 121
6.4      Dynamic memory – a touch of analogue amid the digital 122
6.5      DRAM refreshing – something else to do 124
6.6      Page access memories – EDO and SDRAM 124
6.7      Memory mapping – addressing and decoding 127
6.8      IO port mapping – integration vs. differentiation 131
The Intel Pentium CPU 137
7.1      The Pentium – a high-performance microprocessor 138
7.2      CPU registers – temporary store for data and address variables 143
7.3      Instruction set – introduction to the basic Pentium set 148
7.4      Structure of instructions – how the CU sees it 149
7.5      CPU status flags – very short-term memory 151
7.6      Addressing modes – building effective addresses 153
7.7      Execution pipelines – the RISC speedup technique 155
7.8      Pentium 4 – extensions 157
7.9      Microsoft Developer Studio – using the debugger 158
Subroutines 167
8.1      The purpose of subroutines – saving space and effort 168
8.2      Return address – introducing the stack 169
8.3      Using subroutines – HLL programming 170
8.4      The stack – essential to most operations 172
8.5      Passing parameters – localizing a subroutine 173
8.6      Stack frame – all the local variables 176
8.7      Supporting HLLs – special CPU facilities for dealing with subroutines   179
8.8      Interrupt service routines – hardware-invoked subroutines 179
8.9      Accessing operating system routines – late binding 180
Simple input and output 185
9.1      Basic IO methods – polling, interrupt and DMA 186
9.2      Peripheral interface registers – the programmer’s viewpoint 187
9.3      Polling – single-character IO 191
9.4      Interrupt processing – service on demand 197
9.5      Critical data protection – how to communicate with interrupts 205
9.6      Buffered IO – interrupt device drivers 209
9.7      Direct memory access (DMA) – autonomous hardware 210
9.8      Single-character IO – screen and keyboard routines 212
Serial Connections 219
10.1    Serial transmission – data, signals and timing 220
10.2    Data format – encoding techniques 221
10.3    Timing synchronization – frequency and phase 224
10.4    Data codes and error control – parity, checksums, Hamming codes
and CRCs 227
10.5    Flow control – hardware and software methods 235
10.6    The 16550 UART – RS232 237
10.7    Serial mice – mechanical or optical 244
10.8    Serial ports – practical tips, avoiding the frustration 246
10.9    USB – Universal Serial Bus 246
10.10  Modems – modulating carrier waves 252
Parallel connections 263
11.1    Parallel interfaces – better performance 264
11.2    Centronics – more than a printer port but less than a bus 264
11.3    SCSI – the Small Computer Systems Interface 267
11.4    IDE – Intelligent Drive Electronics 271
11.5    AT/ISA – a computer standards success story 272
11.6    PCI – Peripheral Component Interconnection 275
11.7    Plug-and-Play – automatic configuration 278
11.8    PCMCIA – Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association 280
The memory hierarchy 285
12.1    Levels of performance – you get what you pay for 286
12.2    Localization of access – exploiting repetition 288
12.3    Instruction and data caches – matching memory to CPU speed 293
12.4    Cache mapping – direct or associative 295
12.5    Virtual memory – segmentation and demand paging 299
12.6    Address formulation – when, where and how much 304
12.7    Hard disk usage – parameters, access scheduling and
data arrangement 306
12.8    Performance improvement – blocking, caching, defragmentation,
scheduling, RAM disk 310
12.9    Optical discs – CD-DA, CD-ROM, CD-RW and DVDs 312
12.10  DVD – Digital Versatile Disc 316
12.11  MPEG – video and audio compression 316
12.12  Flash sticks – the new floppy disk 323
Part 2    Networking and increased complexity
The programmer’s viewpoint 329
13.1    Different viewpoints – different needs 330
13.2    Application user – office packages 331
13.3    Systems administration – software installation and maintenance         333
13.4    HLL programmer – working with Java, C++, BASIC or C# 337
13.5    Systems programming – assembler and C 340
13.6    Hardware engineer – design and hardware maintenance 344
13.7    Layered virtual machines – hierarchical description 345
13.8    Assemblers – simple translators 346
13.9    Compilers – translation and more 347
Local area networks 353
14.1    Reconnecting the users – email, printers and database 354
14.2    PC network interface – cabling and interface card 359
14.3    Ethernet – Carrier Sense, Multiple Access/Collision Detect 363
14.4    LAN addressing – logical and physical schemes 367
14.5    Host names – another layer of translation 370
14.6    Layering and encapsulation – TCP/IP software stack 371
14.7    Networked file systems – sharing files across a network 372
14.8    Interconnecting networks – gateways 374
14.9    Socket programming – an introduction to WinSock 374
Wide area networks 383
15.1    The Internet – origins 384
15.2    TCP/IP – the essential protocols 386
15.3    TCP – handling errors and flow control 390
15.4    IP routing – how packets find their way 392
15.5    DNS – Distributed Name Database 398
15.6    World Wide Web – the start 401
15.7    Browsing the Web – Netscape Navigator 403
15.8    HTTP – another protocol 407
15.9    Search engines – Google 409
15.10  Open Systems Interconnect – an idealized scheme 412
Other networks 419
16.1    The PSTN – telephones 420
16.2    Cellnets – providers of mobile communications 426
16.3    ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode 435
16.4    Messaging – radio paging and packet radio networks 440
16.5    ISDN – totally digital 442
16.6    DSL – Digital Subscriber Line 446
16.7    Cable television – facilities for data transmission 447
Introduction to operating systems 455
17.1    Historic origins – development of basic functions 456
17.2    Unix – a landmark operating system 459
17.3    Outline structure – modularization 462
17.4    Process management – initialization and dispatching 463
17.5    Scheduling decisions – time-slicing, demand preemption
or cooperative 469
17.6    Task communication – pipes and redirection 471
17.7    Exclusion and synchronization – semaphores and signals 473
17.8    Memory allocation – malloc( ) and free( ) 479
17.9    User interface – GUIs and shells 481
17.10  Input–output management – device handlers 482
Windows XP 491
18.1    Windows GUIs – responding to a need 492
18.2    Win32 – the preferred user API 494
18.3    Processes and threads – multitasking 495
18.4    Memory management – virtual memory implementation 496
18.5    Windows Registry – centralized administrative database 496
18.6    NTFS – Windows NT File System 498
18.7    File access – ACLs, permissions and security 499
18.8    Sharing software components – OLE, DDE and COM 502
18.9    Windows NT as a mainframe – Winframe terminal server 502
Filing systems 507
19.1    Data storage – file systems and databases 508
19.2    The PC file allocation table – FAT 515
19.3    Unix inodes – they do it differently 518
19.4    Microsoft NTFS – complexity and security 523
19.5    RAID configuration – more security for the disk subsystem 525
19.6    File security – access controls 526
19.7    CD portable file system – multi-session contents lists 528
Visual output 533
20.1    Computers and graphics – capture, storage, processing
and redisplay 534
20.2    PC graphics adapter cards – graphics coprocessors 541
20.3    Laser printers – this is mechatronics! 547
20.4    Adobe PostScript – a page description language 549
20.5    WIMPs – remodelling the computer 554
20.6    Win32 – graphical API and more 555
20.7    The X Window system – enabling distributed processing 557
20.8    MMX technology – assisting graphical calculations 558
RISC processors: ARM and SPARC 563
21.1    Justifying RISC – increased instruction throughput 564
21.2    Pipeline techniques – more parallel operations 569
21.3    Superscalar methods – parallel parallelism 571
21.4    Register files – many more CPU registers 572
21.5    Branch prediction methods – maintaining the pipelines 574
21.6    Compiler support – an essential part of RISC 576
21.7    The ARM 32 bit CPU – origins 576
21.8    StrongARM processor – a 32 bit microcontroller 585
21.9    The HP iPAQ – a StrongARM PDA 588
21.10  Puppeteer – a StrongARM SBC 590
21.11  Sun SPARC – scalar processor architecture as RISC 592
21.12  Embedded systems – cross-development techniques 594
VLIW processors: the EPIC Itanium 601
22.1    Itanium 64 bit processor – introduction 602
22.2    Itanium assembler – increasing the control of the CPU 609
22.3    Run-time debugging – gvd/gdb 613
22.4    Future processor design – debate 615
Parallel processing 619
23.1    Parallel processing – the basis 620
23.2    Instruction-level parallelism (ILP) – pipelining 623
23.3    Superscalar – multiple execution units 623
23.4    Symmetric, shared memory multiprocessing (SMP) – the future?         623
23.5    Single-chip multiprocessors – the IBM Cell 626
23.6    Clusters and grids – application-level parallelism 629
Appendix: MS Visual Studio 8, Express Edition 635
Glossary 647
Answers to end-of-chapter questions 661
References 713
Index 717




Other Core of CS Books
Computer Organization and Architecture 6th Edition 
Computer Organization and Architecture 6e
Computer architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Computer Architecture Tutorial
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