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Hardware and Computer Organization






Contents
Preface to the First Edition .................................................................................. xi
Acknowledgments ............................................................................................. xvi
What’s on the DVD-ROM? ................................................................................ xvii
CHAPTER 1: Introduction and Overview of Hardware Architecture ................. 1
Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1
A Brief History of Computing ...................................................................................................... 1
Number Systems ....................................................................................................................... 12
Converting Decimals to Bases .................................................................................................... 25
Engineering Notation ............................................................................................................... 26
Summary of Chapter 1 .............................................................................................................. 27
Exercises for Chapter 1 .............................................................................................................. 28
CHAPTER 2: Introduction to Digital Logic ......................................................... 29
Electronic Gate Description ........................................................................................................ 39
Truth Tables ............................................................................................................................... 44
Summary of Chapter 2 .............................................................................................................. 46
Exercises for Chapter 2 .............................................................................................................. 47
CHAPTER 3: Introduction to Asynchronous Logic ............................................. 49
Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 49
Laws of Boolean Algebra ........................................................................................................... 51
The Karnaugh Map ................................................................................................................... 55
Clocks and Pulses ...................................................................................................................... 62
Summary of Chapter 3 .............................................................................................................. 67
Exercises for Chapter 3 .............................................................................................................. 68
CHAPTER 4: Introduction to Synchronous Logic ............................................... 71
Flip-Flops ................................................................................................................................... 72
Storage Register ........................................................................................................................ 83
Summary of Chapter 4 .............................................................................................................. 90
Exercises for Chapter 4 .............................................................................................................. 91
CHAPTER 5: Introduction to State Machines ..................................................... 95
Modern Hardware Design Methodologies ................................................................................ 115
Summary of Chapter 5 ............................................................................................................ 119
Exercises for Chapter 5 ............................................................................................................ 120
CHAPTER 6: Bus Organization and Memory Design ....................................... 123
Bus Organization ..................................................................................................................... 123
Address Space ......................................................................................................................... 136
Direct Memory Access (DMA) .................................................................................................. 152
Summary of Chapter 6 ............................................................................................................ 153
Exercises for Chapter 6 ............................................................................................................ 155
CHAPTER 7: Memory Organization and Assembly Language Programming .. 159
Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 159
Label ....................................................................................................................................... 170
Effective Addresses .................................................................................................................. 174
Pseudo Opcodes ...................................................................................................................... 183
Data Storage Directives ............................................................................................................ 184
Analysis of an Assembly Language Program ............................................................................. 186
Summary of Chapter 7 ............................................................................................................ 188
Exercises for Chapter 7 ............................................................................................................ 189
CHAPTER 8: Programming in Assembly Language ......................................... 193
Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 193
Assembly Language and C++ .................................................................................................. 209
Stacks and Subroutines ........................................................................................................... 216
Summary of Chapter 8 ............................................................................................................ 222
Exercises for Chapter 8 ............................................................................................................ 223
CHAPTER 9: Advanced Assembly Language Programming Concepts ........... 229
Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 229
Advanced Addressing Modes ................................................................................................... 230
68000 Instructions .................................................................................................................. 232
MOVE Instructions ................................................................................................................... 233
Logical Instructions .................................................................................................................. 233
Other Logical Instructions ........................................................................................................ 234
Summary of the 68K Instructions ............................................................................................. 238
Simulated I/O Using the TRAP #15 Instruction ....................................................................... 240
Compilers and Assemblers ....................................................................................................... 242
Summary of Chapter 9 ............................................................................................................ 259
Exercises for Chapter 9 ............................................................................................................ 260
CHAPTER 10: The Intel x86 Architecture ......................................................... 265
Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 265
The Architecture of the 8086 CPU ........................................................................................... 267
Data, Index and Pointer Registers ............................................................................................ 269
Flag Registers .......................................................................................................................... 272
Segment Registers ................................................................................................................... 273
Instruction Pointer (IP) ............................................................................................................. 273
Memory Addressing Modes ..................................................................................................... 275
X86 Instruction Format ............................................................................................................ 278
8086 Instruction Set Summary ................................................................................................. 282
Data Transfer Instructions ........................................................................................................ 282
Arithmetic Instructions ............................................................................................................ 283
Logic Instructions .................................................................................................................... 284
String Manipulation ................................................................................................................. 285
Control Transfer ...................................................................................................................... 286
Assembly Language Programming the 8086 Architecture ....................................................... 289
System Vectors ........................................................................................................................ 291
System Startup ........................................................................................................................ 292
Wrap-Up ................................................................................................................................. 292
Summary of Chapter 10 .......................................................................................................... 292
Exercises for Chapter 10 .......................................................................................................... 294
CHAPTER 11: The ARM Architecture ................................................................ 295
Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 295
ARM Architecture .................................................................................................................... 296
Conditional Execution ............................................................................................................ 301
Barrel Shifter ........................................................................................................................... 302
Operand Size ........................................................................................................................... 303
Addressing Modes ................................................................................................................... 304
Stack Operations ..................................................................................................................... 306
ARM Instruction Set ................................................................................................................ 309
ARM System Vectors ............................................................................................................... 319
Summary and Conclusions ...................................................................................................... 320
Summary of Chapter 11 .......................................................................................................... 320
Exercises for Chapter 11 .......................................................................................................... 321
CHAPTER 12: Interfacing with the Real World ................................................ 322
Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 322
Interrupts ................................................................................................................................ 323
Exceptions ............................................................................................................................... 327
Motorola 68K Interrupts .......................................................................................................... 327
Analog-to-Digital (A/D) and Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Conversion ............................................... 332
The Resolution of A/D and D/A Converters .............................................................................. 346
Summary of Chapter 12 .......................................................................................................... 348
Exercises for Chapter 12 .......................................................................................................... 349
CHAPTER 13: Introduction to Modern Computer Architectures .................... 353
Processor Architectures, CISC, RISC and DSP ........................................................................... 354
An Overview of Pipelining ....................................................................................................... 358
Summary of Chapter 13 .......................................................................................................... 369
Exercises for Chapter 13 .......................................................................................................... 370
CHAPTER 14: Memory Revisited, Caches and Virtual Memory ...................... 372
Introduction to Caches ............................................................................................................ 372
Virtual Memory ....................................................................................................................... 387
Pages ...................................................................................................................................... 389
Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) ............................................................................................ 391
Protection ................................................................................................................................ 392
Summary of Chapter 14 .......................................................................................................... 393
Exercises for Chapter 14 .......................................................................................................... 395
CHAPTER 15: Performance Issues in Computer Architecture ......................... 397
Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 397
Hardware and Performance ..................................................................................................... 398
Best Practices .......................................................................................................................... 414
Summary of Chapter 15 .......................................................................................................... 416
Exercises for Chapter 15 .......................................................................................................... 417
CHAPTER 16: Future Trends and Reconfigurable Hardware .......................... 419
Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 419
Reconfigurable Hardware ........................................................................................................ 419
Molecular Computing ............................................................................................................. 430
Local clocks ............................................................................................................................. 432
Summary of Chapter 16 .......................................................................................................... 434
Exercises for Chapter 16 .......................................................................................................... 436
APPENDIX A: Solutions for Odd-Numbered Exercises ................................... 437
[Solutions to the even-numbered problems are available through the instructor’s resource website at http://www.elsevier.com/0750678860.]
About the Author ............................................................................................. 483
Index .................................................................................................................. 485

Other Hardware Books
Other Core of CS Books
Computer Organization and Architecture 6th Edition
Fundamentals Of Computer Organization And Architecture
Computer Organization
Computer organization Notes
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