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Saturday, April 14, 2012

World Migration Report 2010






Table of Contents
IOM Editorial Team........................................................................................................iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.......................................................................................................v
List of WMR 2010 Background Papers.......................................................................vii
List of WMR 2010 Interagency Seminars................................................................. viii
WMR 2010 Eurasylum’s monthly policy interviews..............................................ix
LIst of Figures and MAPS............................................................................................ xiv
FOREWORD....................................................................................................................... xix
Building capacities for change. ......................................................................1
1. The global outlook for migration. ......................................................................................... 3
.
2. Capacity-building. ................................................................................................................. 7
.
3. Labour mobility................................................................................................................... 11
3.1 Determining policy goals................................................................................................ 12
3.2 Assessing labour and skills shortages. ........................................................................... 14
.
3.3 Regulating admissions and selecting migrant workers.................................................. 15
3.4 Determining conditions attached to employment permits............................................ 18
3.5 Training of migrant workers and placement services. ................................................... 20
.
3.6 Protection of migrant workers’ rights............................................................................ 21
3.7 Reducing labour migration costs.................................................................................... 23
3.8 Strengthening and implementing bilateral labour mobility agreements....................... 24
3.9 Return and reintegration............................................................................................... 25
.
3.10 Implementation............................................................................................................. 26
4. Irregular migration.............................................................................................................. 29
WORLD MIGRATION REPORT 2010 |
4.1 Better data on irregular migration................................................................................. 31
4.2 Law-enforcement strategies.......................................................................................... 33
.
4.3 Regularization................................................................................................................ 35
4.4 Detention and return..................................................................................................... 36
4.5 Regulating migration and employment. ........................................................................ 37
.
4.6 Capacity-building in transit States. ................................................................................ 38
.
4.7 Combating migrant smuggling and human trafficking................................................... 39
4.8 Mixed flows.................................................................................................................... 40
4.9 Information campaigns ................................................................................................. 42
4.10 Partnerships and cooperation........................................................................................ 43
5. Migration and development............................................................................................... 45
5.1 Mainstreaming migration in development plans........................................................... 46
5.2 Optimizing formal remittance flows. ............................................................................. 47
.
5.3 Enhancing the developmental impacts of remittances.................................................. 49
5.4 Engaging diasporas........................................................................................................ 50
5.5 Consolidating knowledge networks............................................................................... 52
5.6 Strengthening the links between return and development........................................... 52
5.7 Promoting circular migration......................................................................................... 53
5.8 Training to retain............................................................................................................ 55
5.9 Ethical recruitment policies........................................................................................... 55
5.10 Institutional capacity-building........................................................................................ 56
WORLD MIGRATION REPORT 2010 | TABLE OF CONTENTS 6. Integration. ......................................................................................................................... 57 .
6.1 Strengthening economic participation........................................................................... 58
6.2 Encouraging civic participation among migrants........................................................... 60
6.3 Simplifying rules on citizenship, nationality and dual nationality.................................. 61
6.4 Family migration............................................................................................................ 62
6.5 Managing temporary migration..................................................................................... 65
6.6 Promoting migrant education........................................................................................ 65
6.7 Strengthening anti-discrimination policies and practices.............................................. 67
6.8 Promoting migrant health.............................................................................................. 67
6.9 Fostering public dialogue............................................................................................... 70
6.10 Mainstreaming integration across government............................................................. 70
7. Environmental change........................................................................................................ 73
7.1 Establishing a better evidence base............................................................................... 74
7.2 Disaster risk reduction................................................................................................... 75
7.3 Developing adaptation strategies.................................................................................. 77
7.4 Preparing evacuation plans............................................................................................ 79
7.5 Filling gaps in the legal and normative framework........................................................ 79
7.6 Implementing national laws and policies on internal displacement.............................. 81
7.7 Amending national immigration laws and policies........................................................ 82
7.8 Establishing proactive resettlement policies.................................................................. 83
7.9 Providing humanitarian assistance................................................................................ 84
7.10 Planning for return and resettlement............................................................................ 84
8. Migration governance......................................................................................................... 87
8.1 Developing a national migration policy. ........................................................................ 88 .
8.2 Strengthening migration management at the national level......................................... 89
8.3 Coordinated policymaking and implementation............................................................ 89
8.4 The need for better research and data.......................................................................... 91
8.5 Policy evaluation............................................................................................................ 94
8.6 Developing urban governance....................................................................................... 95
8.7 Engagement with the private sector.............................................................................. 96
8.8 An enhanced role for civil society.................................................................................. 97
8.9 Effective RCPs and cooperation between regional processes........................................ 98
8.10 Addressing the need for more coherent global governance.......................................... 99
9. Next steps......................................................................................................................... 101 .
Checklist of core capacities in international migration........................................................ 104
References. ........................................................................................................................... 105 .
An overview of international migration trends.......................111
Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 113
Regions................................................................................................................................. 113
Global overview of migration................................................................................................115
Global stocks........................................................................................................................ 115
Remittances.......................................................................................................................... 117
Internally displaced persons................................................................................................. 119
Refugees............................................................................................................................... 119
Health migration.................................................................................................................. 119
Student mobility................................................................................................................... 120
Irregular migration............................................................................................................... 120
Environment......................................................................................................................... 121
Migration and the economic crisis 2008–2010.................................................................... 122
References............................................................................................................................ 125


Africa regional overview ...................................................................................................... 127
East and Central Africa......................................................................................................... 129
North Africa.......................................................................................................................... 134
Southern Africa.................................................................................................................... 138
West Africa........................................................................................................................... 140
Effects of the economic crisis............................................................................................... 144
References............................................................................................................................ 147
Americas regional overview.................................................................................................. 149
North America...................................................................................................................... 150
United States of America...................................................................................................... 152
Canada. ................................................................................................................................ 153
.
Latin America and the Caribbean......................................................................................... 153
Effects of the economic crisis............................................................................................... 158
Unemployment............................................................................................................. 158
Remittances . ................................................................................................................ 159
Irregular migration........................................................................................................ 160
Return........................................................................................................................... 161
Policy responses............................................................................................................ 161
References............................................................................................................................ 163
Asia regional overview.......................................................................................................... 165
East Asia............................................................................................................................... 169
South-East Asia..................................................................................................................... 170
South-Central Asia................................................................................................................ 172
Effects of the economic crisis............................................................................................... 175
Unemployment and return........................................................................................... 175
Remittances. ................................................................................................................. 176
.
Policy responses in destination and source countries................................................... 177
References............................................................................................................................ 179
Europe regional overview..................................................................................................... 183
Western and Central Europe................................................................................................ 185
Eastern Europe and Central Asia.......................................................................................... 190
Effects of the economic crisis .............................................................................................. 195
Remittances. ................................................................................................................. 199
.
References............................................................................................................................ 202
WORLD MIGRATION REPORT 2010 |
Middle East regional overview..............................................................................................205
Arab Mashreq....................................................................................................................... 206
GCC countries....................................................................................................................... 209
Israel..................................................................................................................................... 211
Effects of the economic crisis............................................................................................... 213
References............................................................................................................................ 217
Oceania regional overview.................................................................................................... 219
Australia and New Zealand . ................................................................................................ 221
Melanesia, Polynesia and Micronesia ................................................................................. 227
Effects of the economic crisis............................................................................................... 229
References............................................................................................................................ 234
Annex: Migration data: comparability, quality and limitations.............................................237
Immigration and emigration. ............................................................................................... 238 .
Immigration estimates.................................................................................................. 238
Emigration estimates. ................................................................................................... 238 .
Remittances.......................................................................................................................... 240
World Bank data on remittances................................................................................... 240
References............................................................................................................................ 242
MAPS................................................................................................................................. 243


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