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Sunday, February 26, 2012

Databases Demystified, A Self Teaching Guide






ANDREW J. OPPEL
McGraw-Hill/Osborne
New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London
Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan
Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto


CONTENTS
Acknowledgments xvii
Introduction xix
CHAPTER 1 Database Fundamentals 1
Properties of a Database 1
The Database Management System (DBMS) 2
Layers of Data Abstraction 3
Physical Data Independence 5
Logical Data Independence 6
Prevalent Database Models 7
Flat Files 7
The Hierarchical Model 9
The Network Model 11
The Relational Model 13
The Object-Oriented Model 15
The Object-Relational Model 16
A Brief History of Databases 17
Why Focus on Relational? 19
Quiz 20
CHAPTER 2 Exploring Relational Database Components 25
Conceptual Database Design Components 26
Entities 27
Attributes 27
Relationships 28
Business Rules 32
Logical/Physical Database Design Components 33
Tables 33
Columns and Data Types 34
Constraints 37
Integrity Constraints 42
Views 45
Quiz 46
CHAPTER 3 Forms-Based Database Queries 51
QBE: The Roots of Forms-Based Queries 52
Getting Started in Microsoft Access 52
The Microsoft Access Relationships Panel 55
The Microsoft Access Table Design View 57
Creating Queries in Microsoft Access 59
Example 3-1: List All Customers 62
Example 3-2: Choosing Columns to Display 63
Example 3-3: Sorting Results 64
Example 3-4: Advanced Sorting 66
Example 3-5: Choosing Rows to Display 66
Example 3-6: Compound Row Selection 68
Example 3-7: Using Not Equal 70
Example 3-8: Joining Tables 70
Example 3-9: Limiting Join Results 72
Example 3-10: Outer Joins 75
Example 3-11: Multiple Joins;
Calculated Columns 77
Example 3-12: Aggregate Functions 80
Example 3-13: Self-Joins 82
Quiz 85
CHAPTER 4 Introduction to SQL 89
The History of SQL 90
Getting Started with Oracle SQL 91
Where’s the Data? 96
Finding Database Objects Using Catalog Views 97
Viewing Database Objects Using
Oracle Enterprise Manager 98
Data Query Language (DQL):
The SELECT Statement 100
Example 4-1: Listing All Employees 100
Example 4-2: Limiting Columns to Display 100
Example 4-3: Sorting Results 102
Choosing Rows to Display 103
Joining Tables 108
Aggregate Functions 112
Data Manipulation Language (DML) 114
Transaction Support
(COMMIT and ROLLBACK) 114
The INSERT Statement 115
The UPDATE Statement 116
The DELETE Statement 117
Data Definition Language (DDL) Statements 118
The CREATE TABLE Statement 118
The ALTER TABLE Statement 119
The CREATE VIEW Statement 121
The CREATE INDEX Statement 121
The DROP Statement 122
Data Control Language (DCL) Statements 122
The GRANT Statement 123
The REVOKE Statement 123
Quiz 124
CHAPTER 5 The Database Life Cycle 129
The Traditional Method 130
Planning 130
Requirements Gathering 132
Conceptual Design 135
Logical Design 136
Physical Design 136
Construction 137
Implementation and Rollout 138
Ongoing Support 138
Nontraditional Methods 139
Prototyping 139
Rapid Application Development (RAD) 140
Quiz 141
CHAPTER 6 Logical Database Design Using
Normalization 145
The Need for Normalization 147
Insert Anomaly 148
Delete Anomaly 148
Update Anomaly 148
Applying the Normalization Process 148
Choosing a Primary Key 151
First Normal Form: Eliminating
Repeating Data 153
Second Normal Form: Eliminating
Partial Dependencies 156
Third Normal Form: Eliminating
Transitive Dependencies 158
Beyond Third Normal Form 160
Denormalization 163
Practice Problems 164
TLA University Academic Tracking 164
Computer Books Company 170
Quiz 174
CHAPTER 7 Data and Process Modeling 179
Entity Relationship Modeling 180
ERD Formats 180
Super Types and Subtypes 184
Guidelines for Drawing ERDs 188
Process Models 189
The Flowchart 190
The Function Hierarchy Diagram 192
The Swim Lane Diagram 193
The Data Flow Diagram 194
Relating Entities and Processes 196
Quiz 198
Physical Database Design 203
CHAPTER 8
Designing Tables 204
Implementing Super Types and Subtypes 208
Naming Conventions 211
Integrating Business Rules and Data Integrity 214
NOT NULL Constraints 216
Primary Key Constraints 216
Referential (Foreign Key) Constraints 216
Unique Constraints 217
Check Constraints 218
Data Types, Precision, and Scale 218
Triggers 219
Designing Views 220
Adding Indexes for Performance 221
Quiz 222
CHAPTER 9 Connecting Databases to the Outside World 227
Deployment Models 228
Centralized Model 228
Distributed Model 229
Client/Server Model 231
Connecting Databases to the Web 235
Introduction to the Internet and the Web 236
Components of the Web “Technology Stack” 238
Invoking Transactions from Web Pages 239
Connecting Databases to Applications 240
Connecting Databases via ODBC 240
Connecting Databases to Java Applications 241
Quiz 242
CHAPTER 10 Database Security 247
Why Is Security Necessary? 247
Database Server Security 249
Physical Security 249
Network Security 250
System-Level Security 255
Database Client and Application Security 255
Login Credentials 256
Data Encryption 256
Other Client Considerations 257
Database Access Security 258
Database Security Architectures 259
Schema Owner Accounts 263
System Privileges 264
Object Privileges 265
Roles 265
Views 266
Security Monitoring and Auditing 267
Quiz 268
CHAPTER 11 Database Implementation 273
Cursor Processing 273
Transaction Management 276
What Is a Transaction? 276
DBMS Support for Transactions 276
Locking and Transaction Deadlock 278
Performance Tuning 283
Tuning Database Queries 284
Tuning DML Statements 286
Change Control 287
Quiz 288
CHAPTER 12 Databases for Online Analytical Processing 293
Data Warehouses 294
OLTP Systems Compared
with Data Warehouse Systems 295
Data Warehouse Architecture 296
Data Marts 301
Data Mining 302
Quiz 303
Final Exam 307
Answers to Quizzes and Final Exam 325
Chapter 1 325
Chapter 2 325
Chapter 3 326
Chapter 4 326
Chapter 5 326
Chapter 6 326
Chapter 7 326
Chapter 8 327
Chapter 9 327
Chapter 10 327
Chapter 11 327
Chapter 12 327
Index 329

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