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Strange Parallels Southeast Asia in Global Context c 800-1830 Volume 2 Mainland Mirrors Europe Japan China South Asia and the Islands






Contents
List of Figures page xv
Abbreviations Used in the Notes xvii
Preface xxi
1
1. A Far Promontory: Southeast Asia and Eurasia
1. Rethinking Eurasia 1
Three Critiques of European Exceptionalism 3
New Axes of Comparison 9
2. Political and Cultural Integration in Mainland Southeast
Asia c. 800–1830: A Pr ́ cis
e 11
Territorial Consolidation: Overview of Mainland Southeast
Asian Political History 12
Administrative Centralization 22
Cultural Integration 26
The Dynamics of Integration: Overview 31
The Dynamics of Integration: Expansion of Material
Resources 32
The Dynamics of Integration: New Cultural Currents 37
The Dynamics of Integration: Intensifying Interstate
Competition 43
The Dynamics of Integration: Intended and Unintended
Consequences of State Interventions 44
3. Synchronized Trajectories in Mainland Southeast Asia,
Europe, and Japan: A Preliminary Survey 49
Idiosyncrasies 49
Shared Indices of Integration: Territorial, Administrative,
and Cultural Trends 52
Pressures to Integration 67
Factors Promoting Eurasian Coordination 77
4. Areas of Inner Asian Conquest and Precocious
Civilization: Preliminary Comments on China
and South Asia 92
The Protected Zone and the Exposed Zone 92
Similarities Between the Two Zones 93
Distinguishing Features of China and South Asia 97
Europeans in India and Archipelagic Southeast Asia 114
5. Critiques and Caveats 117
2. Varieties of European Experience, I. The Formation of
123
Russia and France to c. 1600
1. Charter Polities, Early and Late, c. 500–1240/1330 126
Introduction: Distinct Heritages, Comparable Rhythms 126
Kievan Genesis and Prosperity 130
Integration and Devolution in the Future Area of
France: The Frankish/Carolingian Charter State,
c. 500–1000 147
Sources of Renewed Vitality, c. 900–1328:
The Capetian Achievement 154
Political and Cultural Cohesion in Kiev and
Capetian France 170
2. Fragmentation, c. 1240–1450 182
The Poison Fruits of Growth: A Survey of 13th- to
182
Mid-15th-Century Difficulties
184
Kiev’s Collapse and the Era of Fragmentation to c. 1450
193
France, c. 1270–1450: A Conjuncture of Calamities
3. Broad Renewal, Brief Collapse, c. 1450–1613 205
205
A New European-Wide Cycle
Muscovite Construction, c. 1450–1580: Mongol-Tatar
212
Patronage and Decline
Muscovite Construction, c. 1450–1580: Economic and
217
Military Spurs
Muscovite Construction, c. 1450–1580: Administrative
Creativity 224
Russian Cultural Integration to c. 1600 228
Muscovite Crisis and Disintegration, c. 1560–1613 238
Factors Promoting the Revival of France, c. 1450–1560 241
Novel French Political Structures, c. 1450–1560:
Comparisons with Southeast Asia 250
French Political Identities and Cultural Integration,
c. 1400–1600 257
French Collapse, 1562–1598: The Wars of Religion 266
Interim Conclusion 269
3. Varieties of European Experience, II. A Great
271
Acceleration, c. 1600–1830
1. Overview: Wider Differences, Closer Parallels 271
2. Russian Political and Cultural Trends to c. 1830 282
Stabilization and Renewal to c. 1650 282
Pressures to Territorial Expansion and Administrative
Integration: Warfare, New Intellectual Currents, and
Economic Growth, c. 1650–1830 286
Strengthening the Central State, c. 1650–1830; Frontier
Revolts as a Sign of Success – Comparisons with
Southeast Asia 299
Cultural Fracture and Integration in the Russian Imperial
Core, c. 1650–1830 306
Culture and Control on the Imperial Periphery,
c. 1650–1830 313
3. France During and After the Bourbons 318
The Construction of French “Absolutism,”
c. 1600–1720: Renewed Integrative Pressures 318
323
New Political Structures
Economic Trends c. 1620–1780 and the Problem of
French–Southeast Asian Correlations 329
The French Revolution and Its Aftermath 340
French Cultural Integration and Fracture, c. 1600–1830 355
Conclusion: Europe and Southeast Asia During
a Thousand Years 368
371
4. Creating Japan
1. Overview 371
2. The Formation and Evolution of an Integrated Polity,
c. 600–1280 381
Charter Civilization: The Ritsuryo Order to c. 900 381

The Stability and Longevity of the Charter Order 391
Evolution of the Heian-Centered Polity,
c. 900 to 1280 398
3. Devolution and Reintegration, c. 1280–1603 407
Late Kamakura and Ashikaga Political Tensions,
c. 1280–1467 407
The Warring States Era and Reunification,
c. 1467–1603 411
Explaining and Correlating Japanese Reunification,
c. 1450–1600 416
Warrior Arts, Buddhist Sects, and Oral Literature:
Cultural Trends, c. 1200–1600 431
4. Tokugawa Idiosyncrasies, 1603–1854 438
Early Political Vigor 438
Tokugawa Economic Vitality to c. 1720 448
Political and Economic Strains, c. 1720–1840;
Overarching Similarities to Other Eurasian Realms 457
The Dynamics of Cultural Integration Under
the Tokugawa 469
The Implications of Cultural Change for Japanese
Self-Images and Political Expression 482
Conclusion 490
5. Integration Under Expanding Inner Asian Influence, I.
494
China: A Precocious and Durable Unity
Why China and South Asia? 494
1. Similarities Between China and the Protected Zone 497
Progressively Shorter Interregna: A Pr ́cis of Chinese
e
497
Political History
Administrative Integration 504
Territorial Expansion 519
Horizontal Cultural Integration 524
Vertical Cultural Exchange 537
Economic and Demographic Cycles Coordinated with
Other Sectors of Eurasia: Explaining Synchronization 548
Comparative Views of the High Qing Economy 565
2. Differences Between China and the Protected Zone 576
Distinctive Chinese Features: Civilizational Precocity 576
Distinctive Chinese Features: Inner Asian Domination 581
Distinctive Chinese Features: The Burdens of Size 603
Distinctive Chinese Features: Modest Fiscal and
Military Imperatives 613
Some Implications of Size and Pacific Environment 622
Conclusion 627
6. Integration Under Expanding Inner Asian Influence, II.
South Asia: Patterns Intermediate Between China and the
631
Protected Zone
1. Similarities Between South Asia, the Protected Zone,
and China 635
Progressively Shorter Eras of Polycentrism: Overview of
South Asian Political History 635
Long-Term Improvements in Administrative Coordination
639
and Penetration
Territorial Expansion 656
Horizontal and Vertical Cultural Integration Across
South Asia 658
Economic and Technological Spurs to Integration
Synchronized with Other Sectors of Eurasia 681
2. Distinctive Features: Early State Formation, Growing
Inner Asian and British Influence, Persistent
Oscillations 705
Early Genesis of Civilization 706
Growing Exposure to Inner Asian Conquest:
An Overview 709
The Recurrent Prosperity and Decline of Regional
Polities: Why Were Such States Less Stable Than in
713
the Protected Zone?
Phase One: Regional Florescence and Eclipse,
c. 550–1206/1334 715
Phase Two: Regional Florescence and Eclipse,
c. 1350–1560/1687 724
Phase Three: Regional Florescence and Eclipse,
c. 1700–1800/1850 733
Why Were Empires Less Durable in South Asia Than
in China? 738
Cohesion and Vulnerability Among Conquest Elites:
Turks and Other Overland Immigrants 746
Cohesion Among Conquest Elites: The British 757
Conclusion 760
763
7. Locating the Islands
Overview: The Relation of Maritime to Mainland
Southeast Asia 763
1. The Charter Era in the Archipelago, c. 650–1350/1500 770
Early State Formation 770
An Archipelagic Charter State: Srivijaya 772
Charter States and Civilization in Pre-Muslim Java 780
Charter State Collapse in the Straits and in Java,
c. 1300–1500 793
2. Trade, New States, and Islam, c. 1350–1511 797
Problems of Periodization and Regional Coherence 797
The Opening Phase of the “Age of Commerce,”
c. 1400–1511: Rising Global Demand 798
Major Port Polities, c. 1350–1511 802
Negeri Society, Islamization, and Malay Identity 809
3. European Interventions in an Era of Multistate Parity,
1511–c. 1660 820
Archipelagic Prosperity to c. 1640 820
Europeans as “White Inner Asians” 824
Creating the Spanish Philippines to c. 1660 830
Portugal’s Impact to c. 1660 837
The Dutch in Southeast Asia to c. 1660 841
Major Archipelagic States, c. 1511 to 1660:
Centralization, Militarization, and Commercial Controls 845
4. Strengthening the Dutch and Spanish Realms,
c. 1660–1830 857
858
A Survey of Dutch Advances to 1784
864
Explaining Dutch Advances
868
18th-Century Commercial Dynamism: The Dutch as Victim
Early 19th-Century Upheavals: The Dutch as Phoenix 874
Cultural Cleavages in the Dutch Conquest State 878
Political and Cultural Integration in the Philippines,
c. 1660–1830 883
Conclusion: The Islands and the Mainland 891
895
Conclusion
Index 909


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