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Thursday, December 15, 2011

C# How To Program






Contents
Contents viii
Illustrations xix
Preface xxxviii
1 Introduction to Computers, the Internet,
the Web and C# 1
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 What Is a Computer? 3
1.3 Computer Organization 3
1.4 Evolution of Operating Systems 4
1.5 Personal Computing, Distributed Computing and Client/Server Computing 5
1.6 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages and High-level Languages 6
1.7 C, C++, Visual Basic .NET and Java™ 7
1.8 C# 9
1.9 Other High-level Languages 10
1.10 Structured Programming 10
1.11 Key Software Trend: Object Technology 11
1.12 Hardware Trends 13
1.13 History of the Internet and World Wide Web 13
1.14 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) 15
1.15 Extensible Markup Language (XML) 15
1.16 Introduction to Microsoft .NET 16
1.17 .NET Framework and the Common Language Runtime 18
1.18 Tour of the Book 20
1.19 Internet and World Wide Web Resources 29Contents IX
2 Introduction to the Visual Studio .NET IDE 33
2.1 Introduction 34
2.2 Visual Studio .NET Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Overview 34
2.3 Menu Bar and Toolbar 37
2.4 Visual Studio .NET Windows 39
2.4.1 Solution Explorer 39
2.4.2 Toolbox 40
2.4.3 Properties Window 42
2.5 Using Help 42
2.6 Simple Program: Displaying Text and an Image 44
3 Introduction to C# Programming 59
3.1 Introduction 60
3.2 Simple Program: Printing a Line of Text 60
3.3 Another Simple Program: Adding Integers 71
3.4 Memory Concepts 75
3.5 Arithmetic 76
3.6 Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators 80
4 Control Structures: Part 1 94
4.1 Introduction 95
4.2 Algorithms 95
4.3 Pseudocode 96
4.4 Control Structures 96
4.5 if Selection Structure 99
4.6 if/else Selection Structure 100
4.7 while Repetition Structure 105
4.8 Formulating Algorithms: Case Study 1 (Counter-Controlled Repetition) 106
4.9 Formulating Algorithms with Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement:
Case Study 2 (Sentinel-Controlled Repetition) 109
4.10 Formulating Algorithms with Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement:
Case Study 3 (Nested Control Structures) 116
4.11 Assignment Operators 120
4.12 Increment and Decrement Operators 121
4.13 Introduction to Windows Application Programming 124
5 Control Structures: Part 2 139
5.1 Introduction 140
5.2 Essentials of Counter-Controlled Repetition 140
5.3 for Repetition Structure 142
5.4 Examples Using the for Structure 146
5.5 switch Multiple-Selection Structure 152
5.6 do/while Repetition Structure 156
5.7 Statements break and continue 158
5.8 Logical and Conditional Operators 160
5.9 Structured-Programming Summary 166X Contents
6 Methods 178
6.1 Introduction 179
6.2 Program Modules in C# 179
6.3 Math Class Methods 181
6.4 Methods 181
6.5 Method Definitions 183
6.6 Argument Promotion 193
6.7 C# Namespaces 195
6.8 Value Types and Reference Types 196
6.9 Passing Arguments: Pass-by-Value vs. Pass-by-Reference 197
6.10 Random-Number Generation 200
6.11 Example: Game of Chance 207
6.12 Duration of Variables 212
6.13 Scope Rules 212
6.14 Recursion 215
6.15 Example Using Recursion: The Fibonacci Series 219
6.16 Recursion vs. Iteration 222
6.17 Method Overloading 223
7 Arrays 236
7.1 Introduction 237
7.2 Arrays 237
7.3 Declaring and Allocating Arrays 239
7.4 Examples Using Arrays 240
7.4.1 Allocating an Array and Initializing Its Elements 240
7.4.2 Totaling the Elements of an Array 242
7.4.3 Using Histograms to Display Array Data Graphically 243
7.4.4 Using the Elements of an Array as Counters 244
7.4.5 Using Arrays to Analyze Survey Results 247
7.5 Passing Arrays to Methods 250
7.6 Passing Arrays by Value and by Reference 253
7.7 Sorting Arrays 257
7.8 Searching Arrays: Linear Search and Binary Search 260
7.8.1 Searching an Array with Linear Search 260
7.8.2 Searching a Sorted Array with Binary Search 261
7.9 Multiple-Subscripted Arrays 265
7.10 foreach Repetition Structure 272
8 Object-Based Programming 280
8.1 Introduction 281
8.2 Implementing a Time Abstract Data Type with a Class 282
8.3 Class Scope 290
8.4 Controlling Access to Members 290
8.5 Initializing Class Objects: Constructors 292
8.6 Using Overloaded Constructors 293
8.7 Properties 297
8.8 Composition: Objects References as Instance Variables of Other Classes 306
8.9 Using the this Reference 309
8.10 Garbage Collection 311
8.11 static Class Members 312
8.12 const and readonly Members 317
8.13 Indexers 319
8.14 Data Abstraction and Information Hiding 326
8.15 Software Reusability 327
8.16 Namespaces and Assemblies 328
8.17 Class View and Object Browser 333
9 Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance 342
9.1 Introduction 343
9.2 Base Classes and Derived Classes 344
9.3 protected and internal Members 347
9.4 Relationship between Base Classes and Derived Classes 347
9.5 Case Study: Three-Level Inheritance Hierarchy 368
9.6 Constructors and Destructors in Derived Classes 371
9.7 Software Engineering with Inheritance 377
10 Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism 382
10.1 Introduction 383
10.2 Derived-Class-Object to Base-Class-Object Conversion 383
10.3 Type Fields and switch Statements 390
10.4 Polymorphism Examples 391
10.5 Abstract Classes and Methods 392
10.6 Case Study: Inheriting Interface and Implementation 394
10.7 sealed Classes and Methods 402
10.8 Case Study: Payroll System Using Polymorphism 403
10.9 Case Study: Creating and Using Interfaces 413
10.10 Delegates 425
10.11 Operator Overloading 430
11 Exception Handling 438
11.1 Introduction 439
11.2 Exception Handling Overview 440
11.3 Example: DivideByZeroException 443
11.4 .NET Exception Hierarchy 448
11.5 finally Block 449
11.6 Exception Properties 457
11.7 Programmer-Defined Exception Classes 462
11.8 Handling Overflows with Operators checked and unchecked 466
12 Graphical User Interface Concepts: Part 1 474
12.1 Introduction 475
12.2 Windows Forms 476
12.3 Event-Handling Model 479
12.3.1 Basic Event Handling 480
12.4 Control Properties and Layout 484
12.5 Labels, TextBoxes and Buttons 488
12.6 GroupBoxes and Panels 495
12.7 CheckBoxes and RadioButtons 498
12.8 PictureBoxes 507
12.9 Mouse Event Handling 509
12.10 Keyboard Event Handling 511
13 Graphical User Interfaces Concepts:
Part 2 520
13.1 Introduction 521
13.2 Menus 521
13.3 LinkLabels 530
13.4 ListBoxes and CheckedListBoxes 534
13.4.1 ListBoxes 537
13.4.2 CheckedListBoxes 539
13.5 ComboBoxes 542
13.6 TreeViews 547
13.7 ListViews 553
13.8 Tab Control 560
13.9 Multiple-Document-Interface (MDI) Windows 565
13.10 Visual Inheritance 574
13.11 User-Defined Controls 578
14 Multithreading 590
14.1 Introduction 591
14.2 Thread States: Life Cycle of a Thread 592
14.3 Thread Priorities and Thread Scheduling 594
14.4 Thread Synchronization and Class Monitor 599
14.5 Producer/Consumer Relationship without Thread Synchronization 601
14.6 Producer/Consumer Relationship with Thread Synchronization 607
14.7 Producer/Consumer Relationship: Circular Buffer 616
15 Strings, Characters and Regular Expressions 632
15.1 Introduction 633
15.2 Fundamentals of Characters and Strings 633
15.3 String Constructors 635
15.4 String Indexer, Length Property and CopyTo Method 636
15.5 Comparing Strings 638
15.6 String Method GetHashCode 642
15.7 Locating Characters and Substrings in Strings 643
15.8 Extracting Substrings from Strings 646
15.9 Concatenating Strings 647
15.10 Miscellaneous String Methods 648
15.11 Class StringBuilder 650
15.12 StringBuilder Indexer, Length and Capacity Properties,
and EnsureCapacity Method 652
15.13 StringBuilder Append and AppendFormat Methods 654
15.14 StringBuilder Insert, Remove and Replace Methods 658
15.15 Char Methods 661
15.16 Card Shuffling and Dealing Simulation 664
15.17 Regular Expressions and Class Regex 668
16 Graphics and Multimedia 684
16.1 Introduction 685
16.2 Graphics Contexts and Graphics Objects 687
16.3 Color Control 688
16.4 Font Control 696
16.5 Drawing Lines, Rectangles and Ovals 701
16.6 Drawing Arcs 704
16.7 Drawing Polygons and Polyli]nes 707
16.8 Advanced Graphics Capabilities 711
16.9 Introduction to Multimedia 717
16.10 Loading, Displaying and Scaling Images 718
16.11 Animating a Series of Images 720
16.12 Windows Media Player 733
16.13 Microsoft Agent 736
17 Files and Streams 757 6
17.1 Introduction 757
17.2 Data Hierarchy 757
17.3 Files and Streams 759
17.4 Classes File and Directory 761
17.5 Creating a Sequential-Access File 771
17.6 Reading Data from a Sequential-Access File 783
17.7 Random-Access Files 794
17.8 Creating a Random-Access File 798
17.9 Writing Data Randomly to a Random-Access File 802
17.10 Reading Data Sequentially from a Random-Access File 807
17.11 Case Study: A Transaction-Processing Program 812
18 Extensible Markup Language (XML) 838
18.1 Introduction 839
18.2 XML Documents 839
18.3 XML Namespaces 844
18.4 Document Object Model (DOM) 847
18.5 Document Type Definitions (DTDs), Schemas and Validation 865
18.5.1 Document Type Definitions 866
18.5.2 Microsoft XML Schemas 869
18.5.3 W3C XML Schema 872
18.5.4 Schema Validation in C# 873
18.6 Extensible Stylesheet Language and XslTransform 877
18.7 Microsoft BizTalk™ 884
18.8 Internet and World Wide Web Resources 887
19 Database, SQL and
ADO .NET 895
19.1 Introduction 896
19.2 Relational Database Model 897
19.3 Relational Database Overview: Books Database 898
19.4 Structured Query Language (SQL) 905
19.4.1 Basic SELECT Query 905
19.4.2 WHERE Clause 906
19.4.3 ORDER BY Clause 909
19.4.4 Merging Data from Multiple Tables: INNER JOIN 912
19.4.5 Joining Data from Tables Authors, AuthorISBN,
Titles and Publishers 914
19.4.6 INSERT Statement 917
19.4.7 UPDATE Statement 918
19.4.8 DELETE Statement 919
19.5 ADO .NET Object Model 920
19.6 Programming with ADO .NET: Extracting Information from a DBMS 921
19.6.1 Connecting to and Querying an Access Data Source 921
19.6.2 Querying the Books Database 928
19.7 Programming with ADO.NET: Modifying a DBMS 930
19.8 Reading and Writing XML Files 938
20 ASP .NET, Web Forms and Web Controls 948
20.1 Introduction 949
20.2 Simple HTTP Transaction 950
20.3 System Architecture 952
20.4 Creating and Running a Simple Web Form Example 953
20.5 Web Controls 966
20.5.1 Text and Graphics Controls 967
20.5.2 AdRotator Control 971
20.5.3 Validation Controls 976
20.6 Session Tracking 987
20.6.1 Cookies 988
20.6.2 Session Tracking with HttpSessionState 997
20.7 Case Study: Online Guest Book 1006
20.8 Case Study: Connecting to a Database in ASP .NET 1013
20.9 Tracing 1027
20.10 Internet and World Wide Web Resources 1030
21 ASP .NET and Web Services 1039
21.1 Introduction 1040
21.2 Web Services 1041
21.3 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) and Web Services 1044
21.4 Publishing and Consuming Web Services 1046
21.5 Session Tracking in Web Services 1062
21.6 Using Web Forms and Web Services 1075
21.7 Case Study: Temperature Information Application 1081
21.8 User-Defined Types in Web Services 1091
22 Networking: Streams-Based Sockets and Datagrams1106
22.1 Introduction 1107
22.2 Establishing a Simple Server (Using Stream Sockets) 1108
22.3 Establishing a Simple Client (Using Stream Sockets) 1110
22.4 Client/Server Interaction with Stream-Socket Connections 1111
22.5 Connectionless Client/Server Interaction with Datagrams 1120
22.6 Client/Server Tic-Tac-Toe Using a Multithreaded Server 1125
23 Data Structures and Collections 1145
23.1 Introduction 1146
23.2 Self-Referential Classes 1146
23.3 Linked Lists 1148
23.4 Stacks 1160
23.5 Queues 1165
23.6 Trees 1168
23.6.1 Binary Search Tree of Integer Values 1170
23.6.2 Binary Search Tree of IComparable Objects 1177
23.7 Collection Classes 1185
23.7.1 Class Array 1185
23.7.2 Class ArrayList 1188
23.7.3 Class Stack 1194
23.7.4 Class Hashtable 1198
24 Accessibility 1212
24.1 Introduction 1213
24.2 Regulations and Resources 1214
24.3 Web Accessibility Initiative 1216
24.4 Providing Alternatives for Images 1216
24.5 Maximizing Readability by Focusing on Structure 1218
24.6 Accessibility in Visual Studio .NET 1218
24.6.1 Enlarging Toolbar Icons 1219
24.6.2 Enlarging the Text 1220
24.6.3 Modifying the Toolbox 1221
24.6.4 Modifying the Keyboard 1221
24.6.5 Rearranging Windows 1222
24.7 Accessibility in C# 1224
24.8 Accessibility in XHTML Tables 1230
24.9 Accessibility in XHTML Frames 1234
24.10 Accessibility in XML 1235
24.11 Using Voice Synthesis and Recognition with VoiceXML™ 1235
24.12 CallXML™ 1243
24.13 JAWS® for Windows 1248
24.14 Other Accessibility Tools 1249
24.15 Accessibility in Microsoft® Windows® 2000 1251
24.15.1 Tools for People with Visual Impairments 1252
24.15.2 Tools for People with Hearing Impairments 1254
24.15.3 Tools for Users Who Have Difficulty Using the Keyboard 1255
24.15.4 Microsoft Narrator 1258
24.15.5 Microsoft On-Screen Keyboard 1261
24.15.6 Accessibility Features in Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.5 1262
24.16 Internet and World Wide Web Resources 1264
A Operator Precedence Chart 1273
B Number Systems (on CD) 1275
B.1 Introduction 1276
B.2 Abbreviating Binary Numbers as Octal Numbers and
Hexadecimal Numbers 1279
B.3 Converting Octal Numbers and Hexadecimal Numbers
to Binary Numbers 1281
B.4 Converting from Binary, Octal or Hexadecimal to Decimal 1281
B.5 Converting from Decimal to Binary, Octal, or Hexadecimal 1282
B.6 Negative Binary Numbers: Two’s Complement Notation 1283
C Career Opportunities (on CD) 1289
C.1 Introduction 1290
C.2 Resources for the Job Seeker 1291
C.3 Online Opportunities for Employers 1292
C.4 Recruiting Services 1297
C.5 Career Sites 1298
C.6 Internet and World Wide Web Resources 1303
D Visual Studio .NET Debugger 1311
D.1 Introduction 1312
D.2 Breakpoints 1313
D.3 Examining Data 1315
D.4 Program Control 1318
D.5 Additional Method Debugging Capabilities 1322
D.6 Additional Class Debugging Capabilities 1324
E Generating Documentation in Visual Studio (on CD) 1329
E.1 Introduction 1330
E.2 Documentation Comments 1330
E.3 Documenting C# Source Code 1331
E.4 Creating Comment Web Pages 1339
E.5 Creating XML Documentation Files 1341
F ASCII Character Set 1348
G Unicode® (on CD) 1349
G.1 Introduction 1350
G.2 Unicode Transformation Formats 1351
G.3 Characters and Glyphs 1352
G.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Unicode 1353
G.5 Unicode Consortium’s Web Site 1353
G.6 Using Unicode 1355
G.7 Character Ranges 1357
H COM Integration (on CD) 1362
H.1 Introduction 1362
H.2 ActiveX Integration 1364
H.3 DLL Integration 1367
H.4 Internet and World Wide Web Resources 1371
I Introduction to HyperText Markup Language 4:
Part 1 (on CD) 1374
I.1 Introduction 1375
I.2 Markup Languages 1375
I.3 Editing HTML 1376
I.4 Common Elements 1376
I.5 Headers 1379
I.6 Linking 1380
I.7 Images 1382
I.8 Special Characters and More Line Breaks 1386
I.9 Unordered Lists 1388
I.10 Nested and Ordered Lists 1389
I.11 Internet and World Wide Web Resources 1392
J Introduction to HyperText Markup Language 4:
Part 2 (on CD) 1397
J.1 Introduction 1398
J.2 Basic HTML Tables 1398
J.3 Intermediate HTML Tables and Formatting 1400
J.4 Basic HTML Forms 1403
J.5 More Complex HTML Forms 1406
J.6 Internal Linking 1413
J.7 Creating and Using Image Maps 1416
J.8 Tags 1418
J.9 frameset Element 1420
J.10 Nested framesets 1422
J.11 Internet and World Wide Web Resources 1424
K Introduction to XHTML: Part 1 (on CD) 1430
K.1 Introduction 1431
K.2 Editing XHTML 1431
K.3 First XHTML Example 1432
K.4 W3C XHTML Validation Service 1435
K.5 Headers 1436
K.6 Linking 1438
K.7 Images 1441
K.8 Special Characters and More Line Breaks 1445
K.9 Unordered Lists 1447
K.10 Nested and Ordered Lists 1448
K.11 Internet and World Wide Web Resources 1451
L Introduction to XHTML: Part 2 (on CD) 1456
L.1 Introduction 1457
L.2 Basic XHTML Tables 1457
L.3 Intermediate XHTML Tables and Formatting 1460
L.4 Basic XHTML Forms 1462
L.5 More Complex XHTML Forms 1465
L.6 Internal Linking 1473
L.7 Creating and Using Image Maps 1476
L.8 meta Elements 1478
L.9 frameset Element 1479
L.10 Nested framesets 1483
L.11 Internet and World Wide Web Resources 1485
M HTML/XHTML Special Characters 1491
N HTML/XHTML Colors 1492
O Bit Manipulation (on CD) 1495
O.1 Introduction 1496
O.2 Bit Manipulation and the Bitwise Operators 1496
O.3 Class BitArray 1508
P Crystal Reports® for Visual Studio .NET 1513
P.1 Introduction 1513
P.2 Crystal Reports Web Site Resources 1513
P.3 Crystal Reports and Visual Studio .NET 1514
Bibliography 1518
Index 1522

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