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Wednesday, June 8, 2011

Understanding WAP Wireless Applications, Devices, and Services







Contents
Preface xiii
1 Introducing the Wireless Application
Protocol
1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 How it all started 2
1.2.1 Why was this done together? 2
1.2.2 A worldwide solution 3
1.2.3 The WAP Forum Ltd. 3
1.2.4 The first commercial version of WAP 3
1.3 A brief description of what it is all about 4
1.3.1 Optimized for wireless communications 4
1.3.2 Deck of cards 4
1.3.3 The WAP stack 4
1.4 Applications using WAP 7
1.4.1 Information retrieval on the Internet 7
1.4.2 The serviceperson application 8
1.4.3 Notification applications 8
1.4.4 Mobile electronic commerce 8
1.4.5 Telephony applications 8
1.5 Benefits and market opportunities 9
1.5.1 Operator benefits 9
1.5.2 Content provider benefits 10
1.5.3 End user benefits 10
1.6 Challenges to the network operator 10
1.6.1 Creating a service package 11
1.7 What is next? 12
1.7.1 Interoperability 12
1.7.2 Products, of course! 12
1.7.3 Liaisons with other organizations 12
1.8 Conclusions 13
2 The Wireless Application Environment
for Creating WAP Services and
Applications
15
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 The wireless markup language 17
2.2.1 Decks of cards 19
2.2.2 User input 20
2.2.3 Task invocation 21
2.2.4 Events 22
2.2.5 Variables and context 23
2.2.6 Other features of WML 24
2.3 Wireless markup language script 25
2.3.1 WMLScript variables and datatypes 26
2.3.2 WMLScript functions 27
2.3.3 Differences between ECMAScript and
WMLScript
27
2.3.4 WMLScript statements 27
2.3.5 Wireless markup language script standard
libraries
29
2.4 Byte-encoded WML and compiled WMLScript 29
2.4.1 Encoding of WML 30
2.4.2 Compilation of WMLScript 30
2.5 Overview of the wireless telephony application
interface
30
2.5.1 WTAI libraries 32
2.6 Migrating from WWW to WAP 33
2.6.1 WML and HTML 33
2.6.2 WMLScript and JavaScript 34
2.6.3 Using CGI and WAP gateways 34
2.7 Markup languages and XML 35
2.8 User agent capabilities and content negotiation 36
2.9 Miscellaneous elements of WAP of interest to
developers
37
2.9.1 Push 37
2.9.2 Wireless session protocol and HTTP headers 37
2.9.3 Binary encoding of wireless session protocol
headers
38
2.9.4 Cache control using wireless session protocol
headers
38
2.10 Available software tools 39
2.11 WML language reference 39
3 Designing Effective User Interfaces for
WAP Services
45
3.1 Introduction 45
3.2 The user interface design process 48
3.2.1 Holistic process 48
3.2.2 Customer satisfaction 49
3.2.3 Designing for tasks 50
3.3 Design principles 52
3.3.1 Economy 52
3.3.2 Modularity 52
3.3.3 Personality 52
3.3.4 Synthesis 53
3.4 Input techniques 53
3.4.1 Avoid text entry 54
3.4.2 Defaults 55
3.4.3 Lists 55
3.5 Navigation models 56
3.5.1 Form-based navigation 56
3.5.2 Question-and-answer navigation 57
3.5.3 Put the user in control 58
3.6 Testing the user interface 59
3.6.1 Different devices 60
3.7 Future developments 61
3.7.1 First-class WAP services 61
3.7.2 Adaptive user interfaces 61
3.8 Conclusions 62
4 Wireless Telephony Application:
Telephony in WAP
65
4.1 Introduction 65
4.2 WTA architecture overview 67
4.3 The WTA framework components 68
4.3.1 The WTA user agent 68
4.3.2 The WTA interface 70
4.3.3 The repository 71
4.3.4 An event-handling mechanism 72
4.4 The WTA server 72
4.5 WTA services and WTA service providers 73
4.6 WTA security model and access control 73
4.7 WTAI— interfacing WAP with the mobile
network
74
4.7.1 The WTA interface design 74
4.7.2 Public WTAI 76
4.7.3 Network-common WTAI 77
4.7.4 Network-specific WTAI 78
4.7.5 Calling WTAI functions 79
4.7.6 WTA events 79
4.8 Repository 80
4.8.1 A persistent storage for fast service access 80
4.8.2 Channels and resources 80
4.8.3 Channel loading and unloading 83
4.9 Event handling 84
4.9.1 Event bindings 84
4.9.2 Event-handling procedure 84
4.9.3 Event parameters 86
4.9.4 Example: temporary event binding 87
4.9.5 Example: global event binding 87
4.10 Building a WTA application 88
4.10.1 The incoming-call handler service 88
5 Integrating WAP Gateways in Wireless
Networks
97
5.1 Overview 97
5.2 Positioning of WAP functionality in a mobile
network
98
5.2.1 WAP gateway 98
5.2.2 WAP-enabled mobile devices 99
5.2.3 WAP origin server 99
5.2.4 Wireless telephony application server 100
5.2.5 Additional support offerings by WAP gateway
manufacturers
100
5.3 Functional requirements of a WAP gateway 103
5.3.1 Standardized functionality specified by the
WAP Forum
104
5.3.2 Functionality required in integrating the
standardized WAP functionality to an actual mobile
network implementation
106
5.3.3 Value-added services provided by
manufacturers
109
5.4 WAP gateway future enhancements 113
5.4.1 Push applications 114
5.4.2 Security 114
5.4.3 Provisioning server 114
5.4.4 New generation mobile networks 114
5.4.5 Interim proprietary solutions 115
5.5 The WAP gateway— product differentiation
factors
115
6 Introduction to WAP Push Services 117
6.1 Introduction 117
6.2 Definition of WAP push 118
6.3 What do we have today? 118
6.3.1 Push on the Web 119
6.3.2 Push in the wireless domain 120
6.3.3 Can the solutions converge? 120
6.4 The WAP push framework 121
6.4.1 Gateways, proxies, and servers 121
6.4.2 Push initiators 123
6.4.3 Push access protocol 124
6.4.4 The push proxy gateway 126
6.4.5 Push OTA protocol 130
6.4.6 Mobile client behavior 131
6.4.7 Service indication 132
6.4.8 Service loading 134
6.5 Security aspects 135
6.5.1 Internet security 135
6.5.2 WAP security 135
6.5.3 End-to-end security 136
6.5.4 Transitive trust 136
6.6 Making it happen 137
6.6.1 Understanding customer value 138
6.6.2 Understanding the value chain 138
6.6.3 Making the money 139
6.6.4 Some examples of push services 140
7 Wireless Application Protocol Security 143
7.1 Introduction 143
7.1.1 Case 1 144
7.1.2 Case 2 144
7.1.3 Case 3 144
7.1.4 Case 4 145
7.2 Overview of cryptography 146
7.2.1 Symmetric-key cryptography 148
7.2.2 Public-key cryptography 148
7.2.3 Hybrid solutions 151
7.2.4 Cryptographic schemes 151
7.2.5 Public-key infrastructures 152
7.2.6 Summary 154
7.3 Security issues in a wireless environment 154
7.4 Security in WAP 156
7.4.1 Introduction 156
7.4.2 The WTLS protocol in detail 157
7.4.3 Security attributes of wireless transport layer
security
159
7.4.4 Comments on WTLS and WAP security 162
7.5 Conclusions 164
8 WAP for Operators 165
8.1 Introduction and background 165
8.2 Operator needs 168
8.3 Customer requirements 170
8.4 Critical success factors for WAP service
introduction
175
8.4.1 Generic critical success factors 175
8.4.2 WAP-specific critical success factors
8.5 WAP services 178
8.6 WAP business models from an operator's
perspective
8.7 Conclusion 185
9 Extending Integrated Unified
Messaging Solutions Using WAP
9.1 Introduction 187
9.2 Unified messaging concept 188
9.3 Unified messaging and the wireless application
protocol
189
9.4 Architecture of wireless application protocol
access to unified messaging system
190
9.5 Using the wireless application protocol to
expand unified messaging services
191
9.5.1 The WAP portal 191
9.6 Wireless application protocol access to unified
messaging services
192
9.6.1 Accessing voice and fax messages 192
9.6.2 Accessing e-mail messages 194
9.6.3 Directory services 196
9.6.4 Notification services 199
9.6.5 Service provisioning and billing 201
9.6.6 Self-provisioning with WAP 202
9.7 Corporate unified messaging systems 202
9.7.1 Network layout of the corporate unified
messaging solution
203
9.7.2 Wireless application protocol messaging and
additional services in corporate systems
205
10 Mobile Financial Services and
Applications
207
10.1 Introduction 207
10.2 A new electronic channel is born 207
10.3 Who are the users of this new channel? 208
10.4 Previous constraints to mobile commerce 209
10.5 Breakthrough technology 210
10.6 Strengths and weaknesses of the mobile
channel
210
10.7 The current range of mobile devices 212
10.7.1 SMS messages on GSM phones 212
10.7.2 USSD messages on GSM phones 213
10.7.3 Applications on the SIM of the phone 214
10.7.4 Microbrowser in smart phones and PDAs 214
10.8 Resident applications on the mobile device 216
10.9 Choice of mobile commerce platform 216
10.10 Existing mobile financial services and
applications
216
10.11 Principles of building scaleable n-tier
applications
220
10.12 Building WAP applications 223
10.13 Building multichannel applications 226
10.14 Building financial WAP applications 229
10.15 Sample banking application 232
10.16 Possible mobile financial services
applications using WAP
233
10.17 The role of other service delivery channels 235
10.18 The personal mobile phone and customer
relation management
235
10.19 Next generation of WAP-based financial
services and applications
236
10.20 Conclusion
Acronyms 239http://www.blogger.com/img/blank.gifhttp://www.blogger.com/img/blank.gif
About the Authors 243
Index 247http://www.blogger.com/img/blank.gif


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