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SMS and MMS Interworking in Mobile Networks






Contents
Introduction xiii
CHAPTER 1
Standard Procedures for SMS in GSM Networks 1
1.1 GSM Network Architecture and Principle of the SMS Procedure 1
1.2 Implementation of SMS Services 3
1.2.1 SMS-MO Implementation 3
1.2.2 The SMS-MT Implementation 6
1.2.3 Sending Commands to the SMSC 14
1.2.4 Addressing the Foreign Network HLRs for SMS-MT 15
1.2.5 Summary of the Network Equipment Model for SMS 16
1.3 MAP Dialogue Models at the Application Level 16
1.3.1 Request and CNF (Simple) Dialogue 17
1.3.2 Concatenated SMS Dialogue: More Message to Send 17
1.3.3 Update Location Dialogue 17
1.3.4 Send Routing Information for SM Dialogue 18
1.4 SCCP Addresses: The Tool for Flexible International Roaming 18
1.5 Mobility Procedures 19
1.5.1 Update Location Procedure 20
1.5.2 Making a Telephone Call to a Mobile 22
1.6 GPRS Procedures: The Gc Interface 23
1.7 SMS Billing Records and Methods 23
1.7.1 SMS-MO CDRs 25
1.7.2 SMS-MT CDRs 26
1.8 Load Test of an SMSC 26
1.8.1 SMS-MT Test Configuration 26
1.8.2 Results and Performance Model 26
Exercises 28
References 28
CHAPTER 2
SS7 Network and Protocol Layers 29
2.1 History 29
2.2 Efficient and Secure Worldwide Telecommunications 29
2.3 MTP Protocol (OSI Layers 1–3) 30
2.3.1 MTP Layer 1: Signaling Data Link Level 31
2.3.2 MTP Layer 2: Signaling Link Functions 31
2.3.3 MTP Layer 3: Signaling Network Functions 34
2.4 Signaling Connection Control Part 37
2.4.1 SCCP Message Format 38
2.4.2 SCCP Layer Architecture 38
2.4.3 SCCP Routing 39
2.5 Transaction Capability Application Part (TCAP) 42
2.5.1 Main Features of TCAP 43
2.5.2 TCAP Architecture 43
2.5.3 TCAP Operation Invocation Example 44
2.6 User-Level Application Parts: MAP, INAP, CAMEL 45
2.6.1 User Part Mapping onto TCAP: MAP Example 45
2.6.2 Routing Design 48
2.6.3 Service-Oriented Design: Application to an SS7-Based
Fault-Tolerant System 50
2.7 SS7 and VoIP Interworking Overview SIGTRAN 51
2.7.1 SCTP 51
2.7.2 Interworking with SS7 52
2.7.3 M3UA Layer 52
2.7.4 M2UA Layer 52
2.7.5 SUA Layer 52
2.7.6 TUA Layer 52
2.8 Conclusions 52
2.8.1 Powerful, Efficient Network Architecture 52
2.8.2 Application to a Worldwide SMS Service Network 53
References 54
CHAPTER 3
Standard Procedures for SMS in IS-41 Networks 57
3.1 Introduction 57
3.1.1 IS-41 Networks 57
3.1.2 Inefficient Handover Chain Procedure 57
3.1.3 MIN and IMSI for IS-41 Networks 59
3.2 Implementation of SMS Services 61
3.2.1 SMS-MO Implementation 61
3.2.2 SMS-MT Implementation 63
3.3 IS-41 Procedure for SMS 63
3.3.1 Functional Description of IS-41 SMS Services 64
3.3.2 IS-41 SMS Protocol Description 68
3.3.3 Specification of the SMS Interworking Network IS-41 SMS
Router 70
3.4 Interworking Between IS-41 and GSM 75
3.4.1 GSM Specifications of User Information 75
3.4.2 Mapping GSM to IS-637 76
3.4.3 Mapping GSM to IS-136-710 78
3.4.4 SMS Delivery from IS-41 SME to MAP SME 78
3.4.5 SMS Delivery from MAP SME to IS-41 SME 82
3.4.6 IS-41 Numbering for SMS Delivery 83
3.5 Addressing HLRs in TDMA and CDMA Networks for SMS
Interworking: Updating Point Code–Based Addressing Information 83
References 84
CHAPTER 4
Implementation of Mobile Number Portability and GSM-to-IS-41
Conversion 85
4.1 Business Model 85
4.2 Basics of Roaming Agreement Implementation 85
4.3 Implementations of Number Portability 86
4.3.1 MNP Handled by Each Individual Operator (Level N) 87
4.3.2 MNP Handled by the Entry International SCCP Gateway
(Level N – 1) 90
4.3.3 Unregulated Countries’ MNP Process Must Be Handled
by the SMS Interworking Network 91
4.4 SMS Routing Strategies for an SMS Interworking Operator
to a Regulated MNP Country 91
4.5 MNP for SMS in Countries That Have Both GSM and IS-41 Operators 92
4.5.1 SMS-MT GSM to an IS-41 Destination 92
4.5.2 SMS-MT from an IS-41 Network to a GSM Destination 95
4.6 Identification of the Destination Network 96
4.6.1 MMS Interconnection 96
4.6.2 Fixed-Line SMS Interconnection 96
4.6.3 MMS and Fixed-Line SMS Interconnection Business 97
References 99
CHAPTER 5
Barring Inbound SMS-MT 101
5.1 Barring Inbound SMS-MT: An Imprtant Business Issue 101
5.1.1 Filtering Service Offered by IGPs at the SCCP Level 101
5.1.2 Selective E164 Translation Facility Barring of the SMS-MT
at the GMSCs SCCP Level 102
5.1.3 HLR Barring 103
5.1.4 Origin Address Type Barring at the MSC Level 103
5.1.5 MAP Barring by the GMSC 103
5.2 Barring or Restricting the SMS-MO of One’s Own Subscribers 104
5.3 Intelligent Barring of SMS-MT 104
5.3.1 Origin Address-Based Barring 104
5.3.2 Filtering Based on Content of Incoming SMS-MT 105
CHAPTER 6
Virtual SMSC Implementation and Transit Agreements 109
6.1 Business Model 109
6.2 Principle of the Virtual SMSC: Architecture and Billing of SMS-MO 109
6.2.1 Architecture 109
6.2.2 Payment Issues 110
6.2.3 Billing Coherence: Dynamic Originating SMSC GT 111
6.2.4 Use of a Local Virtual SMSC GT in the SIM Card 111
6.3 Detailed Implementation of the Virtual SMSC 112
6.3.1 Half-SCCP Roaming for SMS-MO 112
6.3.2 Failure of Half-SCCP Roaming for SMS-MO 113
6.3.3 Solving This Failure Case 113
6.4 Implementation of Transit Agreements (SMS-MT) 114
6.4.1 Cases When a Virtual SMSC Has All Roaming Agreements
of the Operator 114
6.4.2 Optimization of the Implementation of a Transit Agreement 118
6.4.3 Use of an International Point Code: The Solution in Difficult
Setup Cases 118
6.5 Super-Routing Gateway and Multiple Virtual SMSCs in the Same
Equipment 120
Reference 121
CHAPTER 7
Connecting Mobile Operators for SMS-MO 123
7.1 Business Need for an SMS Interworking Operator to Connect
Multiple Mobile Operators 123
7.2 Principle of the Virtual HLR/MSC Approach 123
7.2.1 Relay Mode 123
7.2.2 Transparent Mode 125
7.2.3 Direct Interrogation of the HLR by the Client Operator 126
7.2.4 SMS Interworking Network and the Status Report 127
7.3 Configuration the SMSC or GMSC to Route to the Third Party 127
7.3.1 GT Address Translation in the GMSC 127
7.3.2 Doing the Address Translation in the SMSC 130
7.3.3 Use of a Private Conversion Unit 131
7.3.4 Intelligent SCCP Routing by Your IGP 133
7.4 Creating Third-Party SCCP Routing When a GT Translation Is
Unavailable 134
7.4.1 Case in Which Connected Operator Acts as Its Own SCCP
Gateway 134
7.4.2 Case in Which Connected Operator Uses an International
SCCP Gateway Service: No Solution 135
7.4.3 Case in Which GT Translation Is Not Possible and the
Operator Is Not Its Own SCCP Provider: Use a Conversion Unit 135
7.4.4 Transmission of Signaling Between a GSM and an IS-41
Network 136
7.5 Conclusion 136
Reference 136
CHAPTER 8
Connecting ASPs and ISPs with SMPP 137
8.1 Introduction 137
8.2 SMPP Sessions 137
8.3 SMPP Commands 138
8.4 Example of SMPP Sessions 138
8.5 Example of Message Operations 138
8.5.1 Session Management: Transceiver PDUs 138
8.5.2 Message Submission Operation 139
8.5.3 Other SMPP Operations 143
8.6 GSM IS-41 Interworking Through SMPP 143
Reference 144
CHAPTER 9
MMS Interworking 145
9.1 Introduction 145
9.2 Standard Model for MMS Sending and Receiving 145
9.2.1 MMS Relay/Server 145
9.2.2 MMS User Databases 145
9.2.3 MMS User Agent 146
9.2.4 MMS VAS Applications 146
9.3 Standard Protocols for MMS 147
9.3.1 MM1 Protocol over WAP 147
9.3.2 MM1 over M-IMAP 149
9.3.3 MM4 Protocol 150
9.3.4 MM7 Protocol 151
9.4 MMS Interworking Architectures Using a Third Party 151
9.5 Setting Up the MMS Profile in the Cell Phone 156
9.5.1 Data Access Profile 157
9.5.2 MMSC Profile 159
References 160
CHAPTER 10
Optimal Routing Algorithms for an SMS Interworking Network 161
10.1 Maximizing the Margin of an SMS Interworking Network 161
10.2 Enumerating All Loopless Paths with the Latin Multiplication
Algorithms 161
10.3 Shortest Path: Djsktra Algorithm 165
10.4 Least Cost Path 165
10.5 Least Trouble Path 165
10.6 The Best Flow Problem—Not a Classical Graph Problem 165
10.6.1 Income Model for Customer Charges and Notations 166
10.6.2 Noncontinuous Price Function Paid to the Interworking
Network for an Unsatisfied Demand 166
10.6.3 Continuous Concave Price Function 167
10.6.4 Network Model 167
10.6.5 Mathematical Model for Optimization 168
10.6.6 Algorithm to Find the Global Optimum 171
10.6.7 Centralized Network Traffic Regulation Principle 171
10.7 Example: Detailed Modeling of a Real SMS Interworking Network 172
10.7.1 Modeling a Simple SS7 Router or a Relay 172
10.7.2 Modeling Traffic to Subscribers of a Network Hosting an SS7
Router 173
10.7.3 Modeling a Virtual SS7 Router with Several IGPs and Transit
Agreements 173
10.7.4 Connection of Hosting Partners 176
10.7.5 Path Valuations 176
References 176
CHAPTER 11
INAP and CAMEL Overview and Other Solutions for Prepaid SMS 177
11.1 Use of CAMEL for SMS Prepaid Services 178
11.1.1 SMS Payment from Prepaid Customers 178
11.1.2 Credit Reloading for Prepaid Customers 179
11.2 Useful Subset of CAMEL Services for Prepaid Customers 179
11.2.1 Example 1: Prepaid SMS 179
11.2.2 Example 2: Simple Prepaid Voice Call 179
11.2.3 Example 3: Voice Call Rerouted to an Announcement Machine 181
11.2.4 Details of Applicable CAMEL Services 182
11.2.5 Specificity of the CAMEL Services 183
11.3 Implementation: Multiple-Protocol Services-Oriented Platform:
CAMEL Gateways 184
11.4 Example of Analyzer Traces of a CAMEL Transaction 185
11.5 Other Solutions for Prepaid SMS 187
11.5.1 Prepaid SMS with Service Nodes 187
11.5.2 Prepaid SMS with AoC-Enabled Networks 188
References 189
CHAPTER 12
USSD: A Still-Relevant Conversational Application Service 191
12.1 USSD Advantages over SMS 191
12.2 How Does Mobile-Initiated USSD Service Work? 191
12.3 Example of USSD Service 194
12.4 USSD Is Free: A Call-Back Application 195
CHAPTER 13
Location-Based Services 197
13.1 Location-Based Services: Examples and Revenue Possibilities 197
13.2 Mobile-Originated LBS 197
13.3 Methods 198
13.3.1 MSC Location Method 198
13.3.2 Cell ID Method 198
13.3.3 Extended Cell ID Method 200
13.3.4 Mobile Location Units and BSSAP-LE 200
13.4 Other Methods: Mobile Measured Power Level 201
13.5 3G UMTS Networks 202
13.6 Best Estimate of a Location Using Hyperbolic n-Triangulation 203
13.6.1 Algebraic Equation of a Hyperbola 203
13.6.2 Finding the Best Localization Estimate 204
13.6.3 Exact Solution (True Optimum) 205
13.7 Main Results in the Theory of Resultants and Sturm’s Theorem 206
13.7.1 Purpose of the Theory of Resultants 206
13.7.2 Main Result for Two Algebraic Equations 206
13.7.3 Sturm’s Theorem 208
13.7.4 Bounds on the Value of Roots 210
13.7.5 Application: Recursive Algorithm to Find All the Real Roots 211
References 213
CHAPTER 14
SMS-MO Premium Number Services and Architectures 215
14.1 The Premium SMS-MO Number Business 215
14.1.1 Use of a GSM Modem: Small Throughput 215
14.1.2 Use of a Direct IP Connection to an SMSC: Negotiation and
Setup Tasks 216
14.2 Virtual Roaming Subscriber Architecture 216
14.2.1 Case 1: Omnitel and Third-Party Operator 216
14.2.2 Case 2: Mobile Operator Has a Virtual MSC 217
14.3 SMS-MO with a Real SIM Card 218
14.4 Short Code: A Costly and Time-Consuming Setup 218
14.5 FSG Architecture 219
References 220
CHAPTER 15
Numbering Plan Creation and Maintenance Algorithms 221
15.1 Purpose of Computing Numbering Plans for an SMS Interworking
Network 221
15.2 Entropy of a Numbering Plan as a Quality Indicator 222
15.2.1 Avoiding the Multiple Spanning of HLRs 222
15.2.2 Average Entropy of the Numbering Plan 222
15.2.3 Resulting Global Entropy 223
15.3 “Little Prince” Algorithm to Compute an HLR Numbering Plan 223
15.3.1 Numbering Plan After One Try 224
15.3.2 Numbering Plan After Two Tries 224
15.3.3 Numbering Plan After Three Tries 224
15.4 MSC Search Problem 224
15.4.1 Problem 1 225
15.4.2 Problem 2 225
15.5 Definitions and Properties 225
15.6 Problem 1: Average Number of Searches for a Known N 228
15.6.1 Case N = 2 MSCs 228
15.6.2 Case N = 3 MSCs 229
15.6.3 Asymptotic Bound of MN 230
15.7 Problem 2: Estimate of the Probability That the Number of
231
MSCs N = j
References 232
CHAPTER 16
Worked-Out Examples 233
16.1 Example 1 233
16.2 Example 2 250
16.3 Example 3 268
16.4 Example 4 268
16.5 Example 5 269
16.6 Example 6 270
16.7 Example 7: Connection of a GSM to a Third-Party SMS Network 280
16.8 Example 8: SMS Interworking Between CDMA Networks 294
Abbreviations and Acronyms 301
About the Authors 319
Index 321

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1 comment:

  1. Great Book, thank so much for share.

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