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Monday, December 27, 2010

Smart Card Manufacturing, A Practical Guide













Contents
Preface
1 Function and structure of a smart card ................................................. 1
1.1 Smart cards with contacts ...................................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Structure of a smart card with contacts ........................................................... 1
1.1.2 Standards ......................................................................................................... 3
1.1.3 Transmission protocols ................................................................................... 5
1.1.4 Different types of smart cards ......................................................................... 5
1.1.5 Applications .................................................................................................... 7
1.2 Contactless smart card ......................................................................................... 12
1.2.1 Structure of a contactless smart card ............................................................ 13
1.2.3 Applications .................................................................................................. 16
1.3 Smart cards with multiple interfaces ................................................................... 17
1.3.1 Hybrid smart cards ........................................................................................ 17
1.3.3 Applications .................................................................................................. 17
1.2.2 Standards ....................................................................................................... 15
1.3.2 Dual-interface smart card ............................................................................. 17
2 Card body for smart cards .................................................................. 20
2.1 History ................................................................................................................. 20
2.2 Materials .............................................................................................................. 21
2.3 Standards .............................................................................................................. 23
2.4 Card elements ...................................................................................................... 23
2.4.1 Plastic foils .................................................................................................... 24
2.4.2 Printing ......................................................................................................... 26
2.4.3 Signature panel ............................................................................................. 30
2.4.4 Magnetic stripes ............................................................................................ 32
2.4.5 Embossing ..................................................................................................... 34
2.4.6 Laser engraving ............................................................................................ 36
2.4.7 Hologram ...................................................................................................... 38
2.4.8 Multiple laser image (MLI) .......................................................................... 39
2.4.9 Additional card elements .............................................................................. 40
3 Manufacturing processes for card bodies ........................................... 44
3.1 Laminating technology ........................................................................................ 44
3.1.1 Laminating process ....................................................................................... 48
3.1.2 Card structure ................................................................................................ 50
3.2 Injection moulding ............................................................................................... 54
3.3 Paper card ............................................................................................................ 55
4 Embedding of chip modules into smart cards .................................... 57
4.1 Embedding by lamination technology ................................................................. 57
4.2 Embedding by mounting technology ................................................................... 58
4.2.1 Dimensions of the cavity .............................................................................. 59
4.2.2 Gluing technology ........................................................................................ 66
4.3 In-mould technology ............................................................................................ 78
5 Chips .................................................................................................. 80
5.1 Basics of integrated circuits technology .............................................................. 80
5.2 Production processes for chips ............................................................................ 86
5.3 Paper-thin wafer. .................................................................................................. 96
5.4 Types of memory chips ....................................................................................... 98
6 Chip modules ................................................................................... 102
6.1 Why chip modules? ........................................................................................... 102
6.2 Different types for chip modules ....................................................................... 103
6.3 Structure and materials of chip modules ........................................................... 107
6.4 Production processes for chip modules ............................................................. 112
7 Production processes for smart cards ............................................... 130
7.1 Smart cards with contacts .................................................................................. 130
7.1.1 Chip module incoming test ......................................................................... 131
7.1.2 Production of the card body cavity ............................................................. 133
7.1.3 Connection technology between chip module and card body .................... 140
7.1.4 Embedding of the chip module ................................................................... 144
7.2 Contactless smart cards ...................................................................................... 149
7.2.1 Different types of antennas for contactless smart cards ............................. 149
7.2.2 Connecting technologies for contactless smart cards ................................. 153
7.3 Dual-interface smart cards ................................................................................. 158
7.3.1 Exposing of the antenna contacts in the card body .................................... 158
7.3.2 Connection technology for the antenna ...................................................... 160
8 Smart cards without chip modules ................................................... 167
8.1 MOSAIC ............................................................................................................ 167
8.2 Shellpack ............................................................................................................ 169
8.3 Flip-chip connection technology ....................................................................... 171
9 Reliability tests for chip modules and smart cards ........................... 176
9 .l Quality control. AQL. LTPD ............................................................................. 176
9.2 Electrical reliability tests ................................................................................... 180
9.3 Physical reliability tests ..................................................................................... 186
10 Personalization and mailing of smart cards ..................................... 194
10.1 Work flow for personalization ........................................................................... 195
10.2 Personalization technologies ............................................................................. 196
10.3 Smart card mailing ............................................................................................. 199
1 l New applications for smart cards ..................................................... 201
11.1 Smart cards with electronical input/output devices ........................................... 201
11.2 Smart cards with sensors ................................................................................... 202
1 1.3 New applications for smart cards ...................................................................... 204
12 Short cuts .......................................................................................... 206
13 Bibliography ..................................................................................... 209
14 Appendix .......................................................................................... 210
14.1 Company overview ............................................................................................ 210
14.2 Overview of actual chips for smart cards .......................................................... 216
14.2.1 Memory chip ............................................................................................... 216
14.2.2 Contactless memory chip ............................................................................ 216
14.2.3 Microcontroller chips .................................................................................. 217
14.2.4 Microcontroller chips - dual-interface ..................................................... 218
Index ................................................................................................. 219

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