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Wireless IP And Building The Mobile Internet












Contents
Preface xxi
Acknowledgments xxv
Chapter 1 Wireless IP 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Wireless IP 1
1.3 Challenges for the Heterogeneous Environment 4
1.4 QoS and Resource Management 5
1.4.1 QoS Network Model 8
1.4.2 Resource Management Problems 9
1.5 Seamless Mobility and IP 10
1.6 Ubiquity and Dynamic Ad Hoc Networks 11
1.7 Security Considerations 12
1.8 Concluding Remarks 13
References 14
Part I: Wireless IP Evolution 15
Chapter 2 Evolution to Wireless IP 17
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Motivation for High Data Rates and IP 18
2.3 Radio Interface Technologies 20
2.4 Cost Advantages of 3G Wireless IP 22
2.5 Technology Trade-Offs for 3G Voice and Data 23
2.6 Other Market Segments 24
2.7 Open Application Platforms for Wireless Devices 25
2.8 Concluding Remarks 26
Chapter 3 Wide-Area Wireless IP Connectivity with the General Packet
Radio Service 27
3.1 Introduction 27
3.2 GPRS Overview 28
3.2.1 GPRS Bearers 30
3.2.2 GPRS Protocols 31
3.3 Attach Procedure 34
3.4 Setting Up PDP Contexts 37
3.4.1 Routing and Tunneling 40
3.5 Mobility Handling 41
3.5.1 Cell Change 43
3.5.2 Intra-SGSN Routing Area Change 44
3.5.3 Inter-SGSN Routing Area Change 45
3.6 Summary 47
References 47
Chapter 4 3G Networks and Standards 49
4.1 Introduction 49
4.2 Evolution from 2G to 3G 50
4.3 3G and Its Releases 51
4.3.1 Release 3 (R3) 54
4.3.2 Release 4 (R4) 56
4.3.3 Release 5 (R5) 57
4.4 3G Deployment Scenario 59
4.5 Conclusion: Impact on the Existing Network 61
References 64
Chapter 5 UTRAN Evolution to an All-IP Architecture 67
5.1 Introduction 67
5.2 3GPP Reference Model 68
5.3 UTRAN Overview 72
5.3.1 SONET/SDH 73
5.3.2 ATM 74
5.4 UTRAN Transport Network 74
5.4.1 LIPE 76
5.4.2 CIP 78
5.4.3 MPLS 79
5.4.4 PPPmux/AAL5/ATM 81
5.4.5 PPP/AAL2 81
5.5 Comparison of IP-over-SONET and IP-over-ATM 82
5.5.1 Protocol Overheads 82
5.5.2 Bandwidth Management 83
5.5.3 Network Management 83
5.5.4 QoS 83
5.5.5 Flow Control 84
5.6 Summary 84
References 85
Chapter 6 Beyond 3G: 4G IP-Based Mobile Networks 87
6.1 Introduction 87
6.2 Drivers for the 4G Architecture 88
6.2.1 Support for IP-Based Traffic 88
6.2.2 Excellent Mobility Support 89
6.2.3 Support for Many Different Wireless Technologies 90
6.2.4 Free from Unnecessary Operator Linkage 90
6.2.5 Support for End-to-End Security 91
6.3 4G Architecture and Research Issues 92
6.4 4G Research Efforts 94
6.5 The NTRG 4G Test Bed 96
6.5.1 The Layered Architecture 96
6.5.2 Wireless Alternatives 97
6.5.3 Software Radio 97
6.5.4 Routing Protocols 98
6.5.5 Emulation Facilities 98
6.5.6 The Security Architecture 100
6.5.7 Real-Time Payment 101
6.5.8 Applications 102
6.6 Concluding Remarks 102
References 103
Chapter 7 Ad Hoc Networks: A Mobile IPv6 Viewpoint 105
7.1 Introduction 105
7.1.1 Ad Hoc Networks 106
7.1.2 IPv6 110
7.2 Mobility of Ad Hoc Devices 113
7.3 Ad Hoc Mobility 114
7.3.1 Flooding 115
7.3.2 Proactive Routing Protocols 115
7.3.3 Reactive Routing Protocols 116
7.3.4 Hybrid Routing Protocols 116
7.3.5 Protocols That Make Use of the Known Physical Location 117
7.4 Macro-Mobility: Mobile IP 117
7.5 Micro-Mobility 119
7.5.1 Cellular IP 119
7.6 A Mechanism to Provide Global Connectivity for
7.6 Ad Hoc Devices 121
7.6.1 Addressing 121
7.6.2 Finding an AR 122
7.6.3 Obtaining a COA 123
7.6.4 Communicating with an AR 124
7.6.5 Switching Between Ad Hoc and Global Communication 124
7.6.6 Example 125
7.6.7 Alternative Global Connectivity Proposal 126
7.7 Summary 128
References 129
Part II: QoS and Resource Management 131
Chapter 8 Differentiated and Integrated Services for IP Applications over UMTS 133
8.1 Introduction 133
8.2 All-IP End-to-End Scenarios 138
8.2.1 Architectural Aspects 138
8.2.2 All-IP Scenarios 138
8.2.3 All-IP Scenario Using Differentiated Services 140
8.2.4 All-IP Scenario Using Integrated Services 141
8.2.5 Using RSVP to Control the PDP Context 143
8.3 UMTS Service Classes and Parameters 144
8.3.1 Mapping the End-to-End Service to Local Bearer Services 144
8.3.2 UMTS Traffic Descriptors 145
8.3.3 UMTS QoS Attributes 146
8.3.4 Conclusion 146
8.4 Suitability of Existing Integrated Services over RANs 147
8.4.1 GQoS 148
8.4.2 Controlled Load 148
8.4.3 Null Service 149
8.4.4 Conclusions 149
8.5 Proposed Integrated Services Parameters and Mapping 150
8.5.1 Media Description Using MIME 151
8.5.2 Proposed Additional Parameters for Real-Time Traffic 153
8.5.3 Proposed Additional Parameters for Non-Real-Time Traffic 154
8.6 Numerical Examples 154
8.6.1 SDU Format Information to Facilitate UED/UEP 154
8.6.2 (Residual) BER 155
8.6.3 Maximum Transfer Delay 156
8.6.4 PLR 157
8.7 Conclusions 159
References 160
Chapter 9 Provisioning QoS in 3G Networks with RSVP Proxy 161
9.1 RSVP 163
9.2 Performance-Enhancing Proxies 167
9.3 Enabling End-to-End QoS for Packet Switched Services
9.3 in UMTS 168
9.3.1 Resource Reservation with End-to-End RSVP 169
9.3.2 Service-Based Local Policy and RSVP Sender/Receiver Proxy 170
9.4 Simulation 172
9.5 A Short Summary of Related Standards 175
9.6 Summary 176
References 177
Selected Bibliography 177
Chapter 10 QoS Support for VoIP over Wireless 179
10.1 Introduction 179
10.1.1 Motivation 179
10.1.2 Challenges 180
10.2 Factors Influencing the Speech Quality in a Wireless
10.2 VoIP System 183
10.2.1 Speech Codecs for Wireless VoIP 184
10.2.2 Transmission Impairments 185
10.3 Related Work 188
10.3.1 VoIP over WLANs 188
10.3.2 VoIP over Wireless WANs (Cellular Networks) 190
10.4 QoS for Wireless VoIP Using Selective Packet
10.4 Prioritization 191
10.4.1 Analysis of the G.729 Frame Loss Concealment 191
10.4.2 Selective Packet Marking/Prioritization 193
10.4.3 System Architecture 194
10.4.4 Simulations 195
10.4.5 Conclusions 200
References 201
Chapter 11 Delivering QoS in Mobile Ad Hoc IP Networks 203
11.1 Introduction 203
11.2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 205
11.2.1 Mobile Ad Hoc Network Characteristics 205
11.2.2 Ad Hoc Routing Protocols 206
11.2.3 Addressing Issues and Mobility Management 207
11.3 QoS Models 207
11.3.1 Integrated Services 208
11.3.2 Integrated Services in Ad Hoc Networks 210
11.3.3 DiffServ 212
11.3.4 DiffServ in Ad Hoc Networks 213
11.3.5 A Flexible QoS Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 215
11.4 QoS Signaling 216
11.4.1 RSVP 216
11.4.2 INSIGNIA Signaling 217
11.5 QoS Routing 218
11.5.1 Core-Extraction Distributed Ad Hoc Routing 219
11.5.2 Ticket-Based Probing 221
11.6 Future Directions 222
11.7 Summary 224
References 224
Chapter 12 Radio Access Control in Wireless IP Networks 227
12.1 Introduction 227
12.2 Overview of the Radio Access Control Problem 229
12.2.1 Service Models 229
12.2.2 Problem Formulation 230
12.3 CAC 231
12.3.1 Overview 232
12.3.2 Performance Evaluation 233
12.4 PAC 248
12.4.1 Limits of UL Radio Resources for Non-Real-Time
12.4.1 Packet Radio Access 248
12.4.2 Dynamic Feedback Information Multiple Access 251
12.5 Concluding Remarks 253
References 253
Chapter 13 RRM in Multicarrier Allocation–Based Systems 255
13.1 Introduction 255
13.2 A Multidimensional Concept of Radio Channels in
13.2 Future Wireless IP Networks 257
13.3 The Impact of MCA Systems on Wireless IP Networks 260
13.4 System Model and Performance Measures 262
13.5 Frequency Diversity for an MCA System 264
13.5.1 MCA Scheme Without Frequency Diversity 264
13.5.2 MCA Scheme with Frequency Diversity 265
13.6 Power Control for an MCA System 267
13.6.1 Scheme 1: MCA with Power Control 269
13.6.2 Scheme 2: MCA with Frequency Diversity and Power Control 270
13.7 Carrier-Grouping for an MCA System 272
13.8 Concluding Remarks 275
Acknowledgments 275
References 275
Part III: TCP/IP in Wireless IP Networks 277
Chapter 14 TCP/IP over Next-Generation Broadband Wireless Access Networks 279
14.1 Introduction 279
14.2 TCP Background 281
14.2.1 Performance of TCP on Wireless Links 283
14.3 Design Features for 2G-BWA Networks 284
14.3.1 MAC Layer 284
14.3.2 Physical Layer 287
14.4 End-to-End Performance 289
14.4.1 Simulation Methodology 289
14.4.2 MAC Model 291
14.4.3 PHY Model 291
14.4.4 Wireless Channel Model 292
14.4.5 Traffic Model 293
14.5 Results 295
14.6 Concluding Remarks 299
References 300
Chapter 15 Reliable Multicast Congestion Control for TCP/IP in
Hybrid Networks 303
15.1 Introduction 303
15.1.1 Major Challenges 304
15.2 Background and Related Studies 305
15.2.1 TCP Congestion Control and the TCP Formula 305
15.2.2 Rate-Based Multicast Congestion Control 306
15.2.3 Window-Based Multicast Congestion Control 307
15.3 Reliable Multicast Congestion Control Schemes 307
15.3.1 A GenericRMCCFramework 307
15.3.2 Enhanced Mechanisms for Hierarchical RMCC over
15.3.2 Hybrid Networks 310
15.3.3 RMCC-Preliminary 310
15.3.4 RMCC-Whetten-Enhanced 312
15.3.5 RMCC-Mobile 313
15.4 Performance Evaluation 316
15.4.1 Simulation Objectives and Settings 316
15.4.2 Configuration 1—A Simple Network 317
15.4.3 Configuration 2—A Wired/Wireless Network with
15.4.3 Wireless Links of Different Loss Rates 319
15.4.4 Configuration 3—A Large Network with Two Base Stations 321
15.4.5 Configuration 4—A Wired/Wireless/Mobile Network
15.4.5 with Mobile Nodes 324
15.4.6 TCP Fairness Index 325
15.5 Summary and Future Enhancement: Use of
15.5 Belief Functions 327
15.5.1 BF Calculus: An Overview 327
15.5.2 An Abstract Example 327
15.5.3 Future Directions 330
15.6 Summary 330
Acknowledgments 330
References 331
Part IV: Handoff, Mobility, and Signaling 333
Chapter 16 Mobile IP: A Challenge in the Mobile World 335
16.1 Introduction 335
16.2 The Need for Mobile IP 336
16.3 The Mobile IP in Wireless Networks:
16.3 A Simple Architecture 338
16.3.1 Agent Discovery 339
16.3.2 Registration 340
16.3.3 Tunneling 341
16.3.4 Mobile IP Datagram 342
16.4 Open Issues in Mobile IPv4 343
16.5 Mobile IPv6 346
16.6 Possible Solutions for Micro-Mobility in Mobile
16.6 IP Networks 350
16.6.1 Cellular IP 350
16.6.2 HAWAII 352
16.6.3 Hierarchical Mobile IP 354
16.7 Conclusions and Future Directions 355
References 356
Chapter 17 IP Micro-Mobility Management Using Host-Based Routing 359
17.1 Introduction and Background 359
17.1.1 Chapter Overview 359
17.1.2 The Application-Layer Macro-Mobility Management
17.1.2 Alternative 360
17.1.3 Micro-Mobility Management 363
17.2 HBR Overview 365
17.2.1 A Generic HBR Solution for IP Micro-Mobility 366
17.2.2 Comparison Between HBR Schemes 369
17.2.3 Comparison with Ad Hoc Mobility Schemes 371
17.3 Performance Issues 373
17.3.1 A Qualitative Perspective 373
17.3.2 Quantifying Performance 375
17.4 Performance Results 376
17.4.1 Simulation Environment 376
17.4.2 Simulation Results 378
17.4.3 Results from Laboratory Prototype 386
17.5 Conclusions and Future Directions 388
References 390
Chapter 18 Handoff Initiation in Mobile IPv6 393
18.1 Introduction 393
18.1.1 Mobile IPv6 Operation 394
18.1.2 Handoff Initiation 395
18.1.3 Handoff Performance 397
18.1.4 Comparison with Other IP Mobility Schemes 397
18.2 Mathematical Models 399
18.2.1 Basic Definitions 399
18.2.2 Eager Cell Switching 400
18.2.3 Lazy Cell Switching 401
18.3 Experimental Results in Test Bed 403
18.3.1 The Mobile IPv6 Test Bed 403
18.3.2 Experimental Approach 404
18.3.3 Overview of Performed Experiments 405
18.3.4 Default Settings 406
18.3.5 Varying Advertisement Frequency 407
18.4 Optimizing Protocol Configuration 408
18.5 Building Wide Experiment 410
18.5.1 Experimental Setup 410
18.5.2 Results 410
18.6 Conclusions and Future Directions 412
References 413
Chapter 19 Location Independent Network Architecture and Mobility Handling
in IPv6 415
19.1 Introduction 415
19.2 LINA 417
19.2.1 Basic Concept 417
19.2.2 Embedded Addressing Model 418
19.2.3 Embedding and Extraction 419
19.2.4 Generalized ID 420
19.2.5 Mapping: Resolving Interface Locator from Node Identifier 420
19.2.6 LINA Communication Model 421
19.3 LIN6: An Application of LINA to IPv6 422
19.3.1 Embedded Addressing in LIN6 422
19.3.2 Embedment in LIN6 423
19.3.3 Generalized Identifier in LIN6 424
19.3.4 Finding Designated Mapping Agents 425
19.3.5 Handoff of a Mobile Node 426
19.3.6 Compatibility with Traditional IPv6 Nodes 427
19.4 Communication Example of LIN6 427
19.4.1 Bootstrap 428
19.4.2 Communication Between LIN6 Nodes 429
19.4.3 Handoff of a LIN6 Node 430
19.5 Implementation 431
19.5.1 Implementation Status 431
19.5.2 Motion Detection Mechanism with IPv6 431
19.6 Protocol Evaluation of Mobility Handling 432
19.6.1 Experimental Network 432
19.6.2 Experimental Results and Considerations 432
19.7 Comparison of LIN6 and Mobile IPv6 437
19.7.1 Single Point of Failure: Mapping Agent and HA 437
19.7.2 Overhead of Packet Header Length 437
19.7.3 End-to-End Communication 438
19.8 Summary 438
References 439
Chapter 20 Distributed Signaling and Routing Protocols in iCAR 441
20.1 Introduction 441
20.2 An Overview of the iCAR System 443
20.2.1 Basic Operations 443
20.3 Signaling and Routing Protocol 446
20.3.1 Connection Setup 446
20.3.2 ARS Routing 449
20.3.3 Connection Release 451
20.4 Simulation Results and Discussion 452
20.5 Conclusion and Future Work 455
References 455
Chapter 21 Reducing Link and Signaling Costs in Mobile IP 457
21.1 Introduction 457
21.2 The New Cost-Efficient Scheme 460
21.2.1 The Mathematical Model 460
21.2.2 Optimal Solution 461
21.3 Performance Evaluation 464
21.3.1 The Total Cost 464
21.3.2 The Signaling Cost 466
21.3.3 The Number of Route Optimizations 467
21.4 Summary 469
References 469
Chapter 22 Enabling WAP Handoffs Between GSM and IEEE 802.11b Bearers
with Mobile IP 471
22.1 Introduction 471
22.2 Reinventing in the Name of Wireless 473
22.3 Converging in the Name of Progress 474
22.3.1 The Mobile IP 474
22.3.2 The WAP Transport Protocols 476
22.4 Experimental Setup 478
22.5 Experimental Results 479
22.6 Mobile WAP Network Components 482
22.7 Summary 483
References 483
Chapter 23 Interworking and Handover Mechanisms Between WLAN and UMTS 485
23.1 Introduction 485
23.2 Interworking System Architectures 486
23.3 Interconnection Between 3G-SGSN and WLAN
23.3 AP by Emulating RAN 487
23.4 Interconnection Between GGSN and WLAN
23.4 AP by Emulating 3G-SGSN 491
23.5 Interconnection Between UMTS and WLAN
23.4 Through VAP 492
23.6 Interconnection Between UMTS and WLAN
23.4 Through Mobility Gateway 494
23.7 Interconnection Between UMTS and WLAN Based on
23.4 Mobile IP 497
23.8 Handover Between IEEE 802.11 and UMTS 498
23.9 Handover Aspects Between IEEE 802.11 WLAN and
23.9 UMTS Based on Mobile IP 499
23.10 Conclusions 501
References 502
Chapter 24 Location-Based Push Architectures for the Mobile Internet 503
24.1 Introduction 503
24.2 Push for Mobile Networks 504
24.2.1 Types of Push 504
24.2.2 Push Scenarios 505
24.2.3 Security for Push 506
24.3 Technical Aspects 507
24.3.1 Bearer Establishment 507
24.3.2 Application Layer Signaling 507
24.3.3 Architecture Components for SIP-Based Push 515
24.4 Realization 518
24.4.1 Content Provider Push and Location-Based Push 518
24.4.2 Application-Related Push for Local Location Assistant (LoL@) 520
24.5 Summary 521
24.6 Conclusions and Future Directions 522
References 523
Chapter 25 Signaling Network Architecture in Wireless IP Overlay Networks 525
25.1 Introduction 525
25.2 Network Model 527
25.2.1 Dedicated Signaling Network Architecture 528
25.2.2 Architecture Components 529
25.2.3 Signaling Home Agent 530
25.2.4 Location Database 530
25.2.5 Resource Database 531
25.2.6 HA 531
25.3 Functions of Signaling Network 531
25.3.1 Terminal Addressing 531
25.4 Signaling and Location Management 532
25.5 Mobility Management 534
25.5.1 Resource Management 536
25.6 Basic Issues 537
25.6.1 Paging and Power Consumption of Idle Terminal 537
25.6.2 Generic Extension Interface for Adding a New Type of
25.6.2 Wireless Network as an RAN 537
25.6.3 Capacity of the Networks as a Communication System 538
25.6.4 Geographical Coverage of Service and BAN Capacity 538
25.6.5 Handover Latency 538
25.7 Concluding Remarks 540
References 540
Part V: Services and Applications 543
Chapter 26 Mobile Content Distribution for Wireless IP Networks 545
26.1 Introduction 545
26.2 Content Distribution in Wireline Web 547
26.2.1 A Taxonomy of Content Distribution 547
26.2.2 Network Scaling 548
26.2.3 Endpoint Acceleration 551
26.2.4 Protocol and Content Optimization 552
26.3 Content Distribution in Wireless IP Networks 553
26.3.1 Air Interface Protocol Optimization 553
26.3.2 Content Adaptation and Proxy Services for Wireless Terminals 555
26.4 Discussions 555
26.5 Concluding Remarks 556
References 556
Chapter 27 Perceptual QoS for Wireless and IP Networks 559
27.1 Introduction 559
27.2 QoS 560
27.2.1 Voice 560
27.2.2 Video 561
27.3 Simulation Model 562
27.3.1 Quality Measurement Tools 562
27.3.2 Link Level Simulation Tools 562
27.3.3 Simulation Model 563
27.4 Video over WLAN 563
27.4.1 Video over 5-GHz WLAN 563
27.4.2 Video over IEEE 802.11b 565
27.5 UMTS Speech Quality 565
27.5.1 Simulation Model 566
27.5.2 Results 567
27.6 Concluding Remarks 568
References 568
Chapter 28 Transcoding for the Mobile Internet: The Case of Video Transcoding 571
28.1 Introduction 571
28.2 Adaptation Techniques for Multimedia
28.2 Content Distribution 572
28.2.1 Adaptation Technique for Mobile Web Accesses 572
28.2.2 Issues of Viewing a Video Stream in a Mobile Environment 573
28.2.3 Adaptation Techniques for Video Streaming 574
28.3 Related Works 576
28.4 Standardization Issues 576
28.5 Video Transcoding System Architecture and Control
28.2 Mechanism 577
28.5.1 Basic Concept of the System 577
28.5.2 System Architecture 578
28.5.3 Control Mechanism 579
28.5.4 MPEG Transcoder 581
28.6 Features of the Video Transcoding System 582
28.6.1 Experimental Video Transcoding System 582
28.6.2 Characteristics of the Experimental System 583
28.7 Concluding Remarks 584
References 585
Chapter 29 On Security in Wireless and IP Networks 587
29.1 Introduction 587
29.2 Cellular Networks Security 588
29.2.1 AMPS 589
29.2.2 TIA/EIA-41 589
29.2.3 TIA/EIA-136 (NA-TDMA) 590
29.2.4 IS-95 (CDMA) 592
29.2.5 GSM 592
29.2.6 GPRS 593
29.2.7 UMTS 594
29.3 Link Layer Security 595
29.3.1 Bluetooth Security 595
29.3.2 IEEE 802.11 WLAN Security 598
29.4 TCP/IPsec 599
29.4.1 IPsec 599
29.4.2 TLS 603
29.4.3 ISAKMP and IKE 605
29.5 Security Algorithms 607
29.5.1 Encryption Algorithms 607
29.5.2 Hash and Signature Algorithms 610
29.6 DDoS, Firewalls, and Private Addressing 611
29.6.1 Always-On and DDoS 611
29.6.2 Private Addressing 612
29.6.3 Firewalls 615
29.7 Concluding Remarks 616
Selected Bibliography 617
About the Editors 619
Index 623

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