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Wednesday, October 27, 2010

Configuring ISA Server 2000














Introduction
Chapter 1 Introduction to
Microsoft ISA Server 1
What Is ISA Server? 2
Why “Security and Acceleration” Server? 3
Internet Security 3
Internet Acceleration 8
The History of ISA: Microsoft Proxy Server 9
In the Beginning: Proxy Server,
Version 1.0 9
Getting Better All the Time:
Proxy Server,Version 2.0 10
A New Name for New and Improved
Functionality: Proxy Server 3.0
(ISA Server) 11
ISA Server Options 15
ISA Standard Edition 15
ISA Enterprise Edition 16
ISA Server Installation Modes 18
The Microsoft.Net Family of Enterprise
Servers 19
The Role of ISA Server in
the Network Environment 22
An Overview of ISA Server Architecture 22
Layered Filtering 24
ISA Client Types 29
ISA Server Authentication 38
ISA Server Features Overview 43
Firewall Security Features 43
Firewall Features Overview 44
System Hardening 45
Secure, Integrated VPN 46
Integrated Intrusion Detection 49
Web Caching Features 51
Internet Connection-Sharing Features 52
Unified Management Features 52
Extensible Platform Features 55
Who This Book Is For and What It Covers 56
Summary 60
Solutions Fast Track 61
Frequently Asked Questions 65
Chapter 2 ISA Server in the Enterprise 69
Introduction 70
Enterprise-Friendly Features 70
Reliability 71
Scalability 72
Scaling Up 73
Scaling Out 73
Scaling Down 73
Multiprocessor Support 73
The Advantages of Multiprocessing 73
Why Symmetric Multiprocessing? 75
Network Load-Balancing Support 76
Clustering 77
Hierarchical and Distributed Caching 77
Total Cost of Ownership 81
Designing Enterprise Solutions 83
General Enterprise Design Principles 84
Enterprise Core Services and
Protocols 84
The Enterprise Networking Model 85
Enterprise Technologies 89
ISA Server Design Considerations 91
Planning Multiserver Arrays 104
Understanding Multiserver Management 104
Backing Up the Array Configuration
Information 105
Using Tiered Policy 108
Planning Policy Elements 108
Understanding ISA Server Licensing 110
Summary 113
Solutions Fast Track 114
Frequently Asked Questions 118
Chapter 3 Security Concepts
and Security Policies 121
Introduction 122
Security Overview 122
Defining Basic Security Concepts 123
Knowledge Is Power 123
Think Like a Thief 124
The Intrusion Triangle 125
Removing Intrusion Opportunities 126
Security Terminology 127
Addressing Security Objectives 129
Controlling Physical Access 130
Physical Access Factors 130
Physical Security Summary 139
Preventing Accidental Compromise
of Data 140
Know Your Users 140
Educate Your Users 140
Control Your Users 141
Preventing Intentional Internal
Security Breaches 141
Hiring and Human Resource
Policies 142
Detecting Internal Breaches 142
Preventing Intentional Internal
Breaches 145
Preventing Unauthorized External
Intrusions and Attacks 145
External Intruders with Internal
Access 146
Tactical Planning 146
Recognizing Network Security Threats 147
Understanding Intruder Motivations 147
Recreational Hackers 147
Profit-Motivated Hackers 148
Vengeful Hackers 149
Hybrid Hackers 149
Classifying Specific Types of Attacks 150
Social Engineering Attacks 150
Denial-of-Service Attacks 152
Scanning and Spoofing 161
Source-Routing Attack 164
Other Protocol Exploits 165
System and Software Exploits 165
Trojans,Viruses, and Worms 166
Categorizing Security Solutions 168
Hardware Security Solutions 168
Hardware-Based Firewalls 168
Other Hardware Security Devices 168
Software Security Solutions 169
Windows 2000 Security Features 169
Security Software 169
Designing a Comprehensive Security Plan 170
Evaluating Security Needs 171
Assessing the Type of Business 172
Assessing the Type of Data 172
Assessing the Network Connections 173
Assessing Management Philosophy 173
Understanding Security Ratings 174
Legal Considerations 175
Designating Responsibility for Network
Security 176
Responsibility for Developing
the Security Plan and Policies 176
Responsibility for Implementing
and Enforcing the Security Plan
and Policies 176
Designing the Corporate Security Policy 177
Developing an Effective Password
Policy 178
Educating Network Users on Security
Issues 182
Incorporating ISA Server into Your
Security Plan 182
ISA Server Intrusion Detection 182
Implementing a System-Hardening
Plan with ISA 184
System-Hardening Goals and
Guidelines 185
Using the Security Configuration
Wizard 186
Using SSL Tunneling and Bridging 187
SSL Tunneling 187
SSL Bridging 188
Summary 192
Solutions Fast Track 193
Frequently Asked Questions 198
Chapter 4 ISA Server Deployment
Planning and Design 201
Introduction 202
ISA Deployment: Planning and Designing
Issues 202
Assessing Network and Hardware
Requirements 202
System Requirements 203
Software Requirements 203
Processor Requirements 204
Multiprocessor Support 205
RAM Configuration 206
Disk Space Considerations 208
Cache Size Considerations 208
Logging and Reporting 209
Network Interface Configuration 210
Active Directory Implementation 216
Mission-Critical Considerations 217
Hard Disk Fault Tolerance 217
Mirrored Volumes (Mirror Sets) 218
RAID 5 Volumes (Stripe Sets
with Parity) 219
Network Fault Tolerance 223
Server Fault Tolerance 224
Bastion Host Configuration 227
Planning the Appropriate Installation Mode 228
Installing in Firewall Mode 229
Installing in Cache Mode 229
Installing in Integrated Mode 230
Planning for a Standalone or an
Array Configuration 231
Planning ISA Client Configuration 233
The Firewall Client 233
The Web Proxy Client 235
The SecureNat Client 236
Assessing the Best Solution for Your
Network 236
Internet Connectivity and DNS
Considerations 238
Level of Service 238
External Interface Configuration 239
DNS Issues 240
Summary 242
Solutions Fast Track 242
Frequently Asked Questions 246
Chapter 5 ISA Server Installation 249
Introduction 250
Installing ISA Server on a Windows 2000
Server 250
Putting Together Your Flight Plan 250
Installation Files and Permissions 251
CD Key and Product License 251
Active Directory Considerations 252
Server Mode 253
Disk Location for ISA Server Files 253
Internal Network IDs and the Local
Address Table 254
ISA Server Features Installation 254
Performing the Installation 255
Installing ISA Server: A Walkthrough 255
Upgrading a Standalone Server to an
Array Member:A Walkthrough 267
Performing the Enterprise
Initialization 268
Backing Up a Configuration and
Promoting a Standalone Server to
an Array Member 271
Changes Made After ISA Server
Installation 278
Migrating from Microsoft Proxy Server 2.0 278
What Gets Migrated and What Doesn’t 278
Functional Differences Between
Proxy Server 2.0 and ISA Server 281
Learn the ISA Server Vocabulary 285
Upgrading Proxy 2.0 on the
Windows 2000 Platform 286
Upgrading a Proxy 2.0 Installation on
Windows NT 4.0 290
A Planned Upgrade from
Windows NT 4.0 Server to
Windows 2000 290
Summary 293
Solutions Fast Track 294
Frequently Asked Questions 297
Chapter 6 Managing ISA Server 299
Introduction 300
Understanding Integrated Administration 300
The ISA Management Console 301
Adding ISA Management to a
Custom MMC 302
The Components of the ISA MMC 305
The ISA Console Objects 312
ISA Wizards 330
The Getting Started Wizard 330
Rules Wizards 330
VPN Wizards 331
Performing Common Management Tasks 332
Configuring Object Permissions 332
Default Permissions 332
Special Object Permissions 332
Setting Permissions on ISA Objects 334
Managing Array Membership 335
Creating a New Array 335
Adding and Removing Computers 335
Promoting a Standalone ISA Server 336
Using Monitoring, Alerting, Logging, and
Reporting Functions 337
Creating, Configuring, and Monitoring
Alerts 338
Viewing Alerts 338
Creating and Configuring Alerts 338
Refreshing the Display 343
Event Messages 343
Monitoring Sessions 344
Using Logging 345
Logging to a File 345
Logging to a Database 346
Configuring Logging 348
Generating Reports 351
Creating Report Jobs 351
Viewing Generated Reports 356
Configuring Sort Order for
Report Data 362
Saving Reports 362
Configuring the Location for Saving
the Summary Database 363
Understanding Remote Administration 365
Installing the ISA Management Console 365
Managing a Remote Standalone
Computer 365
Remotely Managing an Array or
Enterprise 366
Using Terminal Services for Remote
Management of ISA 367
Installing Terminal Services on the
ISA Server 367
Installing Terminal Services Client
Software 369
Summary 372
Solutions Fast Track 373
Frequently Asked Questions 375
Chapter 7 ISA Architecture
and Client Configuration 377
Introduction 378
Understanding ISA Server Architecture 379
The Web Proxy Service 380
The Firewall Service 382
How the Firewall Service Works 382
The Network Address Translation
Protocol Driver 384
The Scheduled Content Download
Service 385
ISA Server Services Interactions 386
Configuration Changes and ISA Server
Services Restarts 388
Installing and Configuring ISA Server
Clients 390
The SecureNAT Client 390
SecureNAT Clients on Simple
Networks 391
SecureNAT Clients on
“Not-Simple” Networks 392
Limitations of the SecureNAT
Client 394
Manually Configuring the
SecureNAT Client 396
Configuring the SecureNAT
Client via DHCP 397
The Firewall Client 398
Advantages of Using the Firewall
Client 398
Disadvantages of Using the Firewall
Client 399
DNS Configuration Issues for
Firewall Clients 401
Deploying the Firewall Client 403
Manual Installation of a Firewall
Client via URL 404
Command-Line Parameters for a
Scripted Installation 407
Automatic Installation 408
Configuring the Firewall Client 411
Automating the Configuration
of the Firewall Client 413
Firewall Service Client
Configuration Files 423
The Web Proxy Client 428
Why You Should Configure the
Web Proxy Client 428
DNS Considerations for the
Web Proxy Client 430
Configuring the Web Proxy Client 430
Autodiscovery and Client Configuration 433
Summary 435
Solutions Fast Track 437
Frequently Asked Questions 440
Chapter 8 Configuring ISA Server
for Outbound Access 443
Introduction 444
Configuring the Server for Outbound Access 444
Configuring Listeners for Outbound
Web Requests 445
Server Performance 448
Network Configuration Settings 449
Firewall Chaining: Routing SecureNAT
and Firewall Client Requests 449
Configuring Firewall and
SecureNAT Client Routing 450
Routing Web Proxy Client Requests 453
Configuring a Web Proxy Service
Routing Rule 454
Routing to a Linux Squid Server 461
Configuring ISA Web Proxy Chaining 463
Configuring Routing for ISA
Server Chains 466
Outbound PPTP Requests 468
The Local Address Table 470
Configuring the LAT 471
Building the Routing Table 473
Configuring the Local Domain Table 475
Creating Secure Outbound Access Policy 477
Creating and Configuring Policy Elements 479
Dial-up Entries 480
Bandwidth Priorities 484
Schedules 487
Destination Sets 489
Client Address Sets 492
Protocol Definitions 494
Content Groups 498
Creating Rules Based on Policy Elements 501
Bandwidth Rules 502
Creating a Bandwidth Rule 503
Managing Bandwidth Rules 507
Site and Content Rules 509
Creating a Site and Content Rule 509
Managing Site and Content Rules 513
Protocol Rules 516
Protocol Rules Depend on Protocol
Definitions 516
Creating a Protocol Rule 517
Creating a Protocol Rule to Allow
Multiple Protocol Definitions:
PCAnywhere 9.x 520
Creating a Protocol Rule to Allow
Access to Multiple Primary Port
Connections 522
Managing Protocol Rules 522
IP Packet Filters 523
Dynamic Packet Filtering 524
Packet Filters for Network Services
Located on the ISA Server 524
Configuring Application Filters That Affect
Outbound Access 528
FTP Access Filter 528
HTTP Redirector Filter 530
SOCKS Filter 534
Streaming Media Filter 535
Live Stream Splitting 536
Understanding and Configuring the Web
Proxy Cache 538
Cache Configuration Elements 539
Configuring HTTP Caching 539
Configuring FTP Caching 541
Configuring Active Caching 542
Configuring Advanced Caching Options 544
Scheduled Content Downloads 546
Summary 551
Solutions Fast Track 552
Frequently Asked Questions 555
Chapter 9 Configuring ISA Server
for Inbound Access 557
Introduction 558
Configuring ISA Server Packet Filtering 558
How Packet Filtering Works 558
Default Packet Filters 559
When Packet Filtering Is Disabled 559
Static versus Dynamic Packet Filtering 559
When to Manually Create Packet Filters 560
Enabling Packet Filtering 561
Creating Packet Filters 561
Managing Packet Filters 569
Supporting Applications on the ISA Server 571
Publishing Services on Perimeter Networks
Using Packet Filters 573
Packet Filtering Options 575
Routing between Public and Private
Networks 575
Packet Filtering/Routing Scenarios 576
Packet Filtering Enabled with IP
Routing Enabled 578
The Packet Filters Tab 578
Enabling Intrusion Detection 580
Application Filters That Affect Inbound Access 581
DNS Intrusion Detection Filter 581
Configuring the H.323 Filter 582
POP Intrusion Detection Filter 583
RPC Filter 583
SMTP Filter 584
The General Tab 584
The Attachments Tab 584
The Users/Domains Tab 587
Configuring the SMTP Message Screener 587
Designing Perimeter Networks 595
Limitations of Perimeter Networks 595
Perimeter Network Configurations 596
Back-to-Back ISA Server Perimeter
Networks 596
Tri-homed ISA Server Perimeter Networks 599
Publishing Services on a Perimeter Network 600
Publishing FTP Servers on a Perimeter
Network 602
Enabling Communication between
Perimeter Hosts and the Internal
Network 603
Bastion Host Considerations 604
Configuring the Windows 2000
Bastion Host 604
Summary 607
Solutions Fast Track 607
Frequently Asked Questions 609
Chapter 10 Publishing Services
to the Internet 611
Introduction 612
Types of Publishing 612
Web Publishing 612
Server Publishing 613
Publishing Services on a Perimeter Network 614
Web Server Publishing 615
Preparing to Publish 615
DNS Entries 615
DNS Client/Server Infrastructure 616
Destination Sets 618
ISA Client Configuration 620
Configuring the Inbound Web
Requests Listener 621
Web Publishing Walkthrough—Basic Web
Publishing 627
Publishing a Web Site on the ISA Server 630
Readying IIS for Publishing 631
Creating the Publishing Rule 632
Web Publishing through Protocol Redirection 637
Creative Publishing Using Destination Sets 639
Secure Web Site Publishing 642
Terminating the Secure Connection
at the ISA Server 643
Bridging Secure Connections as SSL
Requests 650
Publishing a Secure Web Site via
Server Publishing Rules 653
Publishing Services 653
Limitations of Server Publishing Rules 654
You Can Publish a Service Only Once 654
You Cannot Redirect Ports 655
You Cannot Bind a Particular External
Address to an Internal IP Address 655
Server Publishing Bypasses
the Web Proxy Service 655
SecureNAT Does Not Work
for All Published Servers 656
You Cannot Use Destination
Sets in Server Publishing Rules 656
Preparing for Server Publishing 656
Protocol Definitions 657
ISA Client Configuration 657
Client Address Sets 657
Server Publishing Walkthrough—Basic Server
Publishing 658
Secure Mail Server Publishing 662
Configuring ISA Server to Support
Outlook Web Access 666
Publishing a Terminal Server 667
Terminal Server on the ISA Server 668
Terminal Server on the Internal
Network and on the ISA Server 669
Terminal Services Security
Considerations 671
Publishing a Web Server Using Server
Publishing 672
The H.323 Gatekeeper Service 674
Gatekeeper-to-Gatekeeper Calling 677
ILS Servers 679
NetMeeting Clients on the Internet 680
Configuring the Gatekeeper 682
Creating Destinations 682
Call Routing Rules 684
Managing the Gatekeeper 691
Virtual Private Networking 693
Configuring VPN Client Access 693
Gateway-to-Gateway VPN Configuration 695
Configuring the Local VPN 695
Configuring the Remote VPN 700
Testing the Configuration 702
Summary 704
Solutions Fast Track 706
Frequently Asked Questions 709
Chapter 11 Optimizing, Customizing,
Integrating, and Backing Up ISA Server 713
Introduction 714
Optimizing ISA Server Performance 714
Establishing a Baseline and Monitoring
Performance 716
How Baselines Are Used 716
Defining Threshold Values 717
Using the Performance Monitor Tools 717
Addressing Common Performance Issues 742
Addressing Network Bandwidth Issues 742
Addressing Load-Balancing Issues 746
Cache Configuration Issues 748
Editing the Windows 2000 Registry
to Tune ISA Performance Settings 752
Customizing ISA Server 754
Using the ISA Server Software Developer’s Kit 755
Administration Scripts 755
Sample Filters 757
Using Third-Party Add-ons 758
Types of Add-on Programs 758
Overview of Available Add-on Programs 760
Integrating ISA Server with Other Services 760
Understanding Interoperability with
Active Directory 761
Standalone versus Array Member 761
The Active Directory Schema 761
ISA Server and Domain Controllers 762
Understanding Interoperability with
Routing and Remote Access Services 762
RRAS Components 762
RRAS and ISA Server 763
Understanding Interoperability with
Internet Information Server 764
IIS Functionality 764
Publishing IIS to the Internet 764
Understanding Interoperability with
IPSecurity 765
How IPSec Works 766
How IPSec Is Configured in
Windows 2000 766
IPSec and ISA Server 768
Integrating an ISA Server into a
Windows NT 4.0 Domain 769
Backing Up and Restoring the ISA Configuration 769
Backup Principles 769
Backing Up and Restoring Standalone Server
Configurations 770
Backing Up and Restoring Array and
Enterprise Configurations 771
Backing Up and Restoring an Array
Configuration 772
Backing Up and Restoring an Enterprise
Configuration 773
Summary 775
Solutions Fast Track 776
Frequently Asked Questions 780
Chapter 12 Troubleshooting ISA Server 783
Introduction 784
Understanding Basic Troubleshooting Principles 785
Troubleshooting Guidelines 786
The Five Steps of Troubleshooting 786
Troubleshooting Tips 791
ISA Server and Windows 2000
Diagnostic Tools 793
ISA Server Troubleshooting Resources 795
Troubleshooting ISA Server Installation and
Configuration Problems 802
Hardware and Software Compatibility
Problems 802
ISA Server Doesn’t Meet Minimum
System Requirements 803
ISA Server Exhibits Odd Behavior
When Windows 2000 NAT Is Installed 803
Internal Clients Are Unable to Access
External Exchange Server 804
Initial Configuration Problems 804
Unable to Renew DHCP Lease 804
Failure of Services to Start After
Completing Installation 805
Inability to Join Array 805
Inability to Save LAT Entry 806
ISA Server Control Service Does
Not Start 806
Troubleshooting Authentication and Access
Problems 807
Authentication Problems 807
User’s HTTP Request Is Sometimes
Allowed, although a Site and Content
Rule Denies Access 808
Failure to Authenticate Users of
Non-Microsoft Browsers 809
Error Message When Using Pass-Through
Authentication with NTLM 810
Access Problems 810
Inability of Clients to Browse External
Web Sites 811
Problems with Specific Protocols or
Protocol Definitions 811
Inability of Clients to PING External
Hosts 812
Redirection of URL Results in Loop
Condition 812
Ability of Clients to Continue Using a
Specific Protocol After Disabling of Rule 813
Dial-up and VPN Problems 813
Inability of ISA Server to Dial Out to
the Internet 813
Dial-up Connection Is Dropped 814
Inability of PPTP Clients to Connect
through ISA Server 814
Troubleshooting ISA Client Problems 815
Client Performance Problems 815
Slow Client Connection: SecureNAT
Clients 815
Slow Internal Connections: Firewall
Clients 816
Client Connection Problems 816
Inability of Clients to Connect via
Modem 817
Inability of SecureNAT Clients to
Connect to the Internet 817
Inability of Clients to Connect to
External SSL Sites 818
Inability of SecureNAT Clients to
Connect Using Computer Names 819
Inability of SecureNAT Clients to
Connect to a Specific Port Due to
a Timeout 819
Troubleshooting Caching and Publishing Problems 820
Caching Problems 820
All Web Objects Not Being Cached 820
Web Proxy Service Does Not Start 821
Publishing Problems 821
Inability of Clients to Access Published
Web Server 822
Inability of External Clients to Send
E-mail via Exchange Server 822
Summary 824
Solutions Fast Track 824
Frequently Asked Questions 828
Appendix ISA Server 2000 Fast Track 831
Index 869

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