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Thursday, September 16, 2010

Managing Software Requirements; A Unified Approach












Managing Software Requirements
Foreword
The Rock Problem
About This Book
Preface
Context and Acknowledgments
Requirements Lessons from Building Software for Others
Lessons from Building High-Assurance Systems
Lessons from the Requirements Management Business
Experiences at Rational Software
Summary
I: Introduction
1. The Requirements Problem
The Goal
A Look at the Data
Root Causes of Project Success and Failure
2. Introduction to Requirements Management
Definitions
Application of Requirements Management Techniques
The Road Map
Summary
3. The Software Team
Software Development as a Team Activity
The Case Study
Summary
II: Team Skill 1: Analyzing the Problem
4. The Five Steps in Problem Analysis
Step 1: Gain Agreement on the Problem Definition

Step 2: Understand the Root Causes—The Problem Behind the Problem
Step 3: Identify the Stakeholders and the Users
Step 4: Define the Solution System Boundary
Step 5: Identify the Constraints to Be Imposed on the Solution
Summary
Looking Ahead
5. Business Modeling
Purpose of Business Modeling
Using Software Engineering Techniques for Business Modeling
From the Business Models to the Systems Model
When to Use Business Modeling
Summary
Looking Ahead
6. Systems Engineering of Software-Intensive Systems
What Is Systems Engineering?
Requirements Allocation in Systems Engineering
The Case Study
Team Skill 1 Summary
III: Team Skill 2: Understanding User Needs
7. The Challenge of Requirements Elicitation
Barriers to Elicitation
Techniques for Requirements Elicitation
8. The Features of a Product or System
Stakeholder and User Needs
Features
9. Interviewing
The Interview Context
Value-Added Context
The Moment of Truth: The Interview
Compiling the Need Data
A Note on Questionnaires
10. Requirements Workshops
Accelerating the Decision Process
Preparing for the Workshop
Role of the Facilitator
Setting the Agenda
Running the Workshop
11. Brainstorming and Idea Reduction
Live Brainstorming
Idea Reduction
Web-Based Brainstorming
The Case Study: The HOLIS 2000 Requirements Workshop
12. Storyboarding
Types of Storyboards
What Storyboards Do
Tools and Techniques for Storyboarding
Tips for Storyboarding
Summary
13. Applying Use Cases
Building the Use-Case Model
Applying Use Cases to Requirements Elicitation
Case Study: The Use Cases for HOLIS
Summary
14. Role Playing
How to Role Play
Techniques Similar to Role Playing
Summary
15. Prototyping
Types of Prototypes
Requirements Prototypes
What to Prototype
Building the Prototype
Evaluating the Results
Summary
Team Skill 2 Summary
IV: Team Skill 3: Defining the System
16. Organizing Requirements Information
Organizing Requirements of Complex Hardware and Software Systems
Organizing Requirements for Product Families
On "Future" Requirements
Business and Marketing Requirements versus Product Requirements
The Case Study
Summary
17. The Vision Document
Components of the Vision Document
The "Delta Vision" Document
18. The Champion
The Role of the Product Champion
The Product Champion in a Software Product Environment
The Product Champion in an IS/IT Shop
Team Skill 3 Summary
V: Team Skill 4: Managing Scope
19. The Problem of Project Scope
Components of Project Scope
The Hard Question
20. Establishing Project Scope
The Requirements Baseline
Setting Priorities
Assessing Effort
Adding the Risk Element
Reducing Scope
The Case Study
21. Managing Your Customer
Engaging Customers to Manage Their Project Scope
Communicating the Result
Negotiating with the Customer
Managing the Baseline
22. Scope Management and Software Development Process Models
The Waterfall Model
The Spiral Model
The Iterative Approach
What to Do, What to Do …
Team Skill 4 Summary
VI: Team Skill 5: Refining the System Definition
23. Software Requirements
Definition of Software Requirements
Relationship between Features and Software Requirements
The Requirements Dilemma: What versus How
More on Requirements versus Design
A Further Characterization of Requirements
Using Parent-Child Requirements to Increase Specificity
Looking Ahead
24. Refining the Use Cases
Questions to Ask
Refining Use-Case Specifications
The Case Study: Anatomy of a Simple Use Case
Looking Ahead
25. A Modern Software Requirements Specification
The Modern SRS Package
Documenting Functional Requirements
Looking Ahead
26. On Ambiguity and Specificity
Finding the "Sweet Spot"
Mary Had a Little Lamb
Techniques for Disambiguation
What to Do?
27. Quality Measures of Software Requirements
Nine Quality Measures
Quality Measures for the Use-Case Model
Quality Measures of the Modern SRS Package
28. Technical Methods for Specifying Requirements
Pseudocode
Finite State Machines
Decision Trees and Decision Tables
Graphical Decision Trees
Activity Diagrams
Entity-Relationship Models
Object-Oriented Modeling
Data Flow Diagrams
Maintenance of Specifications
Case Study
Team Skill 5 Summary
VII: Team Skill 6: Building the Right System
29. Building the Right System Right: Overview
Continually Confirm that the Development Is on Track
Confirm that the Development Results Are Correct
Learn How to Cope with Change that Occurs during the Development Process
Looking Ahead
30. From Requirements to Implementation
Mapping Requirements to Design and Code
Realizing Use Cases in the Design Model
From Design to Implementation
Summary
Looking Ahead
31. Using Traceability to Support Verification
The Role of Traceability in Requirements Verification
Using Traceability Tools
Proceeding without Traceability Tools
Thinking about Verification and Traceability
Looking Ahead
32. Validating the System
Validation
Case Study: Testing Use Cases
Testing Discrete Requirements
Testing Design Constraints
Looking Ahead
33. Using ROI to Determine the V&V Effort
Depth versus Coverage
What to Verify and Validate
Looking Ahead
34. Managing Change
Why Do Requirements Change?
"We Have Met the Enemy, and They Is Us"
A Process for Managing Change
Requirements Configuration Management
Summary
Team Skill 6 Summary
35. Getting Started
Dedication
What We've Learned So Far
Your Prescription for Requirements Management
Now, On to the Next Release!
A. HOLIS Artifacts
Background of the Case Study
Team Skill 1: Analyzing the Problem
Team Skill 2: Understanding User Needs
Team Skill 3: Defining the System
Team Skill 4: Managing Scope
Team Skill 5: Refining the System Definition
Team Skill 6: Building the Right System
B. Vision Document Template
Table of Contents
C. Modern SRS Package Template
D. Requirements Management in the SEI-CMM and within ISO 9000
Requirements Management in SEI-CMM
Requirements Management in ISO 9000
E. Requirements Management in the Rational Unified Process
Structure of the Rational Unified Process
Requirements Management in the Rational Unified Process
Process Integration
Bibliography

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