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Local Area Network Management Design and Security














ISBN: 978-0-471-49769-1
Paperback
460 pages
July 2002, ©2001

Table of Content in Brief
Preface.
Introduction.
PART I.
Data Communications in Local Area Networks.
PART II.
Hardware in Local Area Networks.
Designing Local Area Networks.
PART III.
Local Area Network Operating System.
Management and Security.
Novell Netware.
Windows 2000.
LINUX.
PART IV.
Management Philosophy and Standards for Administration.
Intranet.
Index.


Table of Content in Detail
PREFACE .............................................................................................................
OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................................................ XIIT
TARGEmT ADERS ............................................................................................................................................... XIV
LONG DISTANCE LEARNING ................................................................................................................................ XV
STRUCTURE OFTHE BOOK ................................................................................................................................ xlv
THANKS .................................................................................................................................................................. xv
CHAPTER P -INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 1
~RMINOLOGY.... .................................................................................................................................................... 2
HISTORY... ............................................................................................................................................................... 3
Microcomputers and local area networks ....................................................................... 4
Local area networks. Ethernet and hternet .................................................................... 4
Local area network ............................................................................................... 5
Metropolitan area nehoork ................................................................................... 5
Wide are network (Wq ................................................................................................ 5
WANs and the Internet ................................................................................................... 6
Intrawts ........................................................................................................................ 6
Resource sharing ........................................................................................................... 7
Communication and cooperation .................................................................................... 7
Security ......................................................................................................................... 8
costs ............................................................................................................................. 8
Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 9
Design ......................................................................................................................... 10
Implementation ............................................................................................................ 10
Integration and system testing ..................................................................................... 11
Operation and maintenance ......................................................................................... 11
Concltrston ................................................................................................................... 11

DATA COMMUNICATION IN LOCAL AREA NETWORK ....................... 13
MODELS FOR COMMUNICATION ......................................................................................................................... 14
A lugered model ........................................................................................................... 17
Communication tasks .................................................................................................. 18
OSI .............................................................................................................................. 22
TCP/IP ......................................................................................................................... 28
Conclusion ...................................................................................................................
TommGY ............................................................................................................................................................ 37
Point-tc-point or star topology ....................................................................................... 37
Bus or tree topology ..................................................................................................... 38
Hubs and switches ...................................................................................................... 39
THE TELEPHONE NETWORK AND MODEMS ...................................................................................................... 40
DJE - DCE ................................................................................................................... 41
ryPes of connection ..................................................................................................... 41
Capacities .................................................................................................................... 42
Fields of application ..................................................................................................... 42
How a modem works ................................................................................................... 42
Serial interface and standards ..................................................................................... 44
Flow control ................................................................................................................. 45
orc correction ............................................................................................................ 46
Compression ................................................................................................................ 47
Command set ............................................................................................................... 47
Null modem .................................................................................................................. 47
ISDN ............................................................................................................................ 48
RIlSL ........................................................................................................................... 50
uM?Is ........................................................................................................................... 51
ACCESS METHODS .............................................................................................................................................. 51
Ring topology ............................................................................................................... 39
Contes t iCS~CD....~... ............................................................................................... 51
'Ibkenpassing .............................................................................................................. 53
LOCAL AREA "WORK STANDMUIS ................................................................................................................. 53
EEE 802.2 UC - LogicalLink Control ......................................................................... 55
IEEE 802.xMAC -MediumAccess Control ................................................................... 55
FDDI- Fiber DistibutedDataInterf~.e.. ..................................................................... 61
ATM ............................................................................................................................. 63
IP ~ ~ l u r o....~.....~....i...s.... ................................................................................................................................... 65
The protocols ............................................................................................................... 68
IP addresses ................................................................................................................ 69
IP datagramformat ...................................................................................................... 72
Assigning IP numbers in local area nehuor ks ................................................................ 75
IP routing ..................................................................................................................... 76
TRANSPORT LAYER IN THE Tcp/I P.s ........................................................................................................ 82
XI2 - Transmission Control Protocol ............................................................................ 86
Xpprotocol details .................................................................................................... -90
W P - user datagram Protocol ...................................................................................... 95
sm Simple mail nansfer Protocol ............................................................................ 97
Hi7F - Hyprtext protocol .............................................................................. 99
DNS - Domain Name System. ..................................................................................... 100
Traditional encyption algorithms .............................................................................. 104
ENCRYrmoN WITH PUBLIC AND PRIVATE KEYS ............................................................................................. 106
PI=Pencyption... ........................................................................................................ 107
P
CmmER 3 -HARDWARE INA LOCALARBA NETwORIz ....................................... 111
SERVE= ............................................................................................................................................................ 1 12 .
File applications ........................................................................................................ 113
SCSI .......................................................................................................................... 115
Harddisks ................................................................................................................. 121
Buses ........................................................................................................................ 124
Memo y IRAM) ........................................................................................................... 128
Motherboards ............................................................................................................ 132
&messor ................................................................................................................... 134
Chipset ...................................................................................................................... 138
Case .......................................................................................................................... 139
HARDWARE FOR BACKUP COPYING ................................................................................................................. 141
bfagnetic tape ............................................................................................................ 142
Other media ............................................................................................................... 143
Nmom INTERFACE CARDS .......................................................................................................................... 143
Introduction ............................................................................................................... 143
Arhitecture ................................................................................................................. 144
Exumples of network card setup and installation ....................................................... 148
Homogenus networks ................................................................................................ 150
Diskless workstations ................................................................................................ 150
Other fadors .............................................................................................................. 151
Twisted-pair cables .................................................................................................... 152
Coaxial cables ........................................................................................................... 155
Wireless networks ..................................................................................................... 158
CONCLUSIO..N.... ............................................................................................................................................... 158
~ ~ R C I S .E...S.... ................................................................................................................................................. 159
WOKKSTA71ONS ................................................................................................................................................. 150
CAElLES ............................................................................................................................................................... 151
CHAPTER 4 -DESIGNING LOCAL AREA NETWORKS ............................................. 161
INTRODUCTIO..N... ............................................................................................................................................. 162
TOPOLOG....Y.... .................................................................................................................................................. 162
Bus ............................................................................................................................ 165
Ring ........................................................................................................................... 165
SEGMENTS (E’lYHEFtNET) .................................................................................................................................. 168
W m O N A L INTERCONNECTION COMPONENTS ......................................................................................... 169
Star ........................................................................................................................... 167
.Repeaters .................................................................................................................. 169
The 5-43 rule for connecting segments ....................................................................... 170
Bridses ...................................................................................................................... 170
Routers ...................................................................................................................... 173
Mode of operations .................................................................................................... 177
Qpe of switch ........................................................................................................... 178
Port switching and segment switching ....................................................................... 180
Combined speed ........................................................................................................ 181
Structured cabling ..................................................................................................... 182
Cabling and patch panel ............................................................................................ 183
Hubs .......................................................................................................................... 185
WIRELESS "WORKS ...................................................................................................................................... 187
Speed Spe&im transfer ............................................................................................ 188
InJi-ared kansfw ........................................................................................................ 188
w ........................................................................................................................ 189
R o q between VL4Ns ............................................................................................. 193
PAPERWOARNKD DOCUMENTATION ................................................................................................................ 194
Two strategies ........................................................................................................... 195
Negotiation of contract ............................................................................................... 196
Support and maintenance .......................................................................................... 197
Level of support agreements ....................................................................................... 198
INSTALLATION ..................................................................................................................................................... 199
Documentation ........................................................................................................... 199
Planning of locatio n. ................................................................................................... 199
B~~iZdinregg ulations. .................................................................................................. 202
SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................................ 202
EXERCISE.S... ..................................................................................................................................................... 203
AREA NETWQRK OPERATING SYSTEM ................................. 205
INTRODUCTO.N... ............................................................................................................................................... 205
PEER-TO-PEENRE TWORK ...............................................................................................................................2..0 7
FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITY .................................................................................................................... 208
I/O optimtsation ......................................................................................................... 208
Fault tolerance ........................................................................................................... 212
Multiple processing and time sharing ......................................................................... 220
PRINT SPOOLER. ...............................................................................................................................................2..2 2
Logical and physical printing ..................................................................................... 222
"The running" of networkprinffng .............................................................................. 223
CURRENT NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS .................................................................................................... 223
Banyan YA?ES ........................................................................................................... 224
LANtastlc ................................................................................................................... 224
OS/Z Warp Server ...................................................................................................... 225
E~ERCISE...S... ................................................................................................................................................... 227
CHAPTER 6 - MANAGEMENT AND SEC .......................................................... 229
SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................................ 225
INTRODUCTION... ................................................................................................................................................ 229
DECIDINGSE CURE" LEVELS ........................................................................................................................... 230
PRINTING ENVIRONMENT .................................................................................................................................. 232
Printing opportunities ................................................................................................. 232
Printer driver .............................................................................................................. 239
A society of users ....................................................................................................... 239
Groups ....................................................................................................................... 241
physican secu tity ................... ......... .._.... ................................................................... 243
~ i c aselcu rity. ......................................................................................................... 245
The need for backup ................................................................................................... 248
What are the consequences? ...................................................................................... 249
Static and dynamic data ............................................................................................ 250
Fulyincrementayd~~erentibaal ckup. ......................................................................... 250
Backup routine .......................................................................................................... 251
Rmovery .................................................................................................................... 255
FIREWALLS ......................................................................................................................................................... 256
DISASTERPL ANNING ........................................................................................................................................ 257
s u ~......y......... ............................................................................................................................................ 257
EXERCE~..E....S... ................................................................................................................................................ 259
CHAPTER 7 - NOVEJA ............................................................................ 281
N&Ware .................................................................................................................... 262
N&Ware 4 .................................................................................................................. 262
Intrawtware ............................................................................................................. 264
Managewise .............................................................................................................. 269
what is NDS7 ............................................................................................................. 270
Object orientatio n. ...................................................................................................... 271
Object types ............................................................................................................... 273
Leaf objects ............................................................................................................... 274
NOVELFLIL E SY'~TEM. ....................................................................................................................................2.. 75
Volumes and folders .................................................................................................. 275
SYSTEFMAU LT TOLERANCE.,. ........................................................................................................................2..7 6
VERSIONS.. ......................................................................................................................................................... 261
N&Ware 5 .................................................................................................................. 265
Groupwise ................................................................................................................. 268
NDS - NOvEIlc DIRECToRY SERVICE...S... ................................................................................................... 269
SFTLevel I ................................................................................................................. 276
SFTkuel 11 ................................................................................................................ 277
SFT level Ill ................................................................................................................ 278
The order of login script ............................................................................................. 280
NOVELL NEXwm SECURITY ......................................................................................................................... 281
Login security ............................................................................................................ 281
Tntstees .................................................................................................................... 284
Novel1 NDS security ................................................................................................... 293
Queuebased printing environment ............................................................................. 298
NDPS - Nouell Distributed Print Services .................................................................... 302
Managing/rnuintenunce of printing (NDl?S) ................................................................. 304
PRINTING ENVIRONMENT IN NOVELL NflTwAFU3 .......................................................................................... 298
SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................................... 306
EXERCISE..S.. ...................................................................................................................................................3.. 07
G .............................................................................. 309
INTR~DUCTION .................................................................................................................................................. 309
Windows ................................................................................................................... 310
W W w s 95/98 ......................................................................................................... 311
Windows Me (Milleniurn edition) ................................................................................. 312
Windows NT .............................................................................................................. 313
Windows 2000 ........................................................................................................... 314
WINDOWS2 000 PROFESSION..A....L... ........................................................................................................... 315
Hardware rquirements ............................................................................................. 316
A ~ i f f ~us~er ~on oworrk station s ........................................................................... 317
WINDOWS 2000 SERVER ................................................................................................................................ 3 1.7
EIwdwcu-e requirements ............................................................................................. 318
Installation ................................................................................................................ 318
Connecting workstatwns in W2K network ................................................................. 320
Workgroups ............................................................................................................... 321
MXVE DIRECTORY ........................................................................................................................................... 322
Important tennS ......................................................................................................... 322
Microsofl Management Consob MlMC ........................................................................ 326
Adctive Direct0 y design ............................................................................................ 327
Object management in Active Directo y ...................................................................... 330
User adminis..n ................................................................................................... 331
Groups ....................................................................................................................... 327
FILE SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................... 342
shanj.lg ...................................................................................................................... 342
Folder/$Ze rights ........................................................................................................ 346
Controlling access to AD objects ................................................................................. 351
Policies ...................................................................................................................... 353
CHAPTER 9 - LINUX ............................................................................................. 361
INTRODUCIION ................................................................................................................................................... 361
SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................................ 357
HImW .............................................................................................................................................................. 362
G'AW .......................................................................................................................... 363
Distributors ............................................................................................................... 364
LINUX STRUCTURE .......................................................................................................................................... 365
Preparations ............................................................................................................. $367
Installationalternatives ............................................................................................. 368
Theple system and partitioning ................................................................................. 369
LIU)Boomzanager ..................................................................................................... 371
Startup ......................................................................................................................3 71
SIMPLUEN IX. ................................................................................................................................................... 371
Users and groups ....................................................................................................... 371
F'iles and rtghts .......................................................................................................... 373
Usefit commands ...................................................................................................... 375
Process handling ........................................................................................................ 376
Shell programming ..................................................................................................... 376
Prlnting emironment inLinux ..................................................................................... 377
Systemadministration ............................................................................................... 379
1xwindows ................................................................................................................. 380
Window manager ....................................................................................................... 381
FvwM2 ...................................................................................................................... 381
WindowMaker ............................................................................................................ 381
Enlightment ............................................................................................................... 381
Libraries .................................................................................................................... 382
GNOME ...................................................................................................................... 382
KDE .......................................................................................................................... 382
@PLICATIONS UNDER LINUX ........................................................................................................................... 383
Xterm ......................................................................................................................... 383
Text editors ................................................................................................................ 383
ETnacs ....................................................................................................................... 384
pko ........................................................................................................................... '38.4
Word processing ........................................................................................................ 38.4
Staroflice ................................................................................................................... 384
WOE-dRer-ect ............................................................................................................... 3535
~ t~ ~~ l ~~ ..~..r...i.... ......~.....o......~.......... .................................................................3 85
~ ~ ~ tools. 1..........0..........~..........~..........2..........~..........~...........~.......... .................... 386
~ ~ ~ ...P...../...~.....P..... .................................................................................................. 386
~ ~ ~ ~ f osie?~wJicoes.? ....-.. .......................................................................................... 1386
S U M M Y . . ......................................................................................................................................................... 388
EXERCISES ......................................................................................................................................................... 389
. . OL. NINx IN ...................................................................................................................................... 386
10 . ...........................
.................................................................................................................................................. 391
THEF; IRE m x r r N C MANAGEMENT M E ~ I O D.... ............................................................................................ 391
The-firef ihting approach ........................................................................................3..9 3
he3 good circle ........................................................................................................... 327
~ a p apclan~ni~n. g ~.... ................................................................................................ '398
System tuning ............................................................................................................ 399
~ " ~ a ? ?qif pto~oets~ o ~ ~ r~ e~ ~~ ?g.....~...e.....~..~......~..r.....~..i...... ~........ ................. 401
ori rq7mF I ~ ~ € N .G....?.... ........................................................................................................... 406
MB ............................................................................................................................ 40c9
............................................................................................................................. 410
~~~~~ ........................................................................................................................4 11
S U M W Y ........................................................................................................................................................... 413
EXERCISES ......................................................................................................................................................... 414
- .................................................................................... ~~~
IN~X~DUCTI..O...N.... ......................................................................................................................................... 415
~ o r i i ~m~eyss~q-fnes~ ar id ernail ................................................................................ 417
~ # r ~sys~temr ....~......i.....~......~...... ......................................................................... 41 7
V ~ e ~ o n J e .r...e...i...~...~....~....~... ............................................................................... 420
Sharing infomiation ................................................................................................... 422
~ ~~n~o r~~2.a...~...o...n-.. .............~...............a...............~...............~...............~..........4 22~
~ M ~ ~ RN~ EE T~ ...~.........R..........~.........~..........N..........~..... ........................................................... 420,
Pla.nning, ~ l a ~ r ainid? p~la nnirq ............................ .............................................. 426
lrztruizet pools ............................................................................................................. 427
..~..ui ~iierianancd~ y .e . .................................................................................. $29 M.. ........................................................................................................................................................... 437
ErnRCISES ................................ ................................................................................................................. 438

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