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Operating Systems Design And Implementation 2nd Edition












CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? 3
1.1.1 The Operating System as an Extended Machine 3
1.1.2 The Operating System as a Resource Manager 4

1.2 HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEMS 5
1.2.1 The First Generation (1945-55) Vacuum Tubes and Plugboards 6
1.2.2 The Second Generation (1955-65) Transistors and Batch Systems 6
1.2.3 The Third Generation (1965-1980): ICs and Multiprogramming 8
1.2.4 The Fourth Generation (1980-Present): Personal Computers 12
1.2.5 History of MINIX 13

1.3 OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS 15
1.3.1 Processes 15
1.3.2 Files 17
1.3.3 The Shell 20

1.4 SYSTEM CALLS 21
1.4.1 System Calls for Process Management 22
1.4.2 System Calls for Signaling 26
1.4.3 System Calls for File Management 28
1.4.4 System Calls for Directory Management 33
1.4.5 System Calls for Protection 35
1.4.6 System Calls for Time Management 36

1.5 OPERATING SYSTEM STRUCTURE 37
1.5.1 Monolithic Systems 37
1.5.2 Layered Systems 39
1.5.3 Virtual Machines 40
1.5.4 Client-Server Model 42

1.6 OUTLINE OF THE REST OF THIS BOOK 44

1.7 SUMMARY 44




CHAPTER 2 PROCESSES 47

2.1 INTRODUCTION TO PROCESSES 47
2.1.1 The Process Model 48
2.1.2 Implementation of Processes 52
2.1.3 Threads 53

2.2 INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATION 57
2.2.1 Race Conditions 57
2.2.2 Critical Sections 58
2.2.3 Mutual Exclusion with Busy Waiting 59
2.2.4 Sleep and Wakeup 63
2.2.5 Semaphores 66
2.2.6 Monitors 68
2.2.7 Message Passing 72

2.3 CLASSICAL IPC PROBLEMS 75
2.3.1 The Dining Philosophers Problem 75
2.3.2 The Readers and Writers Problem 77
2.3.3 The Sleeping Barber Problem 80

2.4 PROCESS SCHEDULING 82
2.4.1 Round Robin Scheduling 84
2.4.2 Priority Scheduling 85
2.4.3 Multiple Queues 86
2.4.4 Shortest Job First 87
2.4.5 Guaranteed Scheduling 89
2.4.6 Lottery Scheduling 89
2.4.7 Real-Time Scheduling 90
2.4.8 Two-level Scheduling 92
2.4.9 Policy versus Mechanism 93

2.5 OVERVIEW OF PROCESSES IN MINIX 93
2.5.1 The Internal Structure of MINIX 93
2.5.2 Process Management in MINIX 95
2.5.3 Interprocess Communication in MINIX 97
2.5.4 Process Scheduling in MINIX 98

2.6 IMPLEMENTATION OF PROCESSES IN MINIX 98
2.6.1 Organization of the MINIX Source Code 99
2.6.2 The Common Header Files 102
2.6.3 The MINIX Header Files 107
2.6.4 Process Data Structures and Header Files 112
2.6.5 Bootstrapping MINIX 120
2.6.6 System Initialization 122
2.6.7 Interrupt Handling in MINIX 128
2.6.8 Interprocess Communication in MINIX 137
2.6.9 Scheduling in MINIX 140
2.6.10 Hardware-Dependent Kernel Support 142
2.6.11 Utilities and the Kernel Library 145

2.7 SUMMARY 147




CHAPTER 3 INPUT/OUTPUT 153

3.1 PRINCIPLES OF I/O HARDWARE 154
3.1.1 I/O Devices 154
3.1.2 Device Controllers 155
3.1.3 Direct Memory Access (DMA) 157

3.2 PRINCIPLES OF I/O SOFTWARE 159
3.2.1 Goals of the I/O Software 159
3.2.2 Interrupt Handlers 161
3.2.3 Device Drivers 161
3.2.4 Device-Independent I/O Software 162
3.2.5 User-Space I/O Software 164

3.3 DEADLOCKS 166
3.3.1 Resources 167
3.3.2 Principles of Deadlock 168
3.3.3 The Ostrich Algorithm 170
3.3.4 Detection and Recovery 172
3.3.5 Deadlock Prevention 173
3.3.6 Deadlock Avoidance 175

3.4 OVERVIEW OF I/O IN MINIX 179
3.4.1 Interrupt Handlers in MINIX 180
3.4.2 Device Drivers in MINIX 181
3.4.3 Device-Independent I/O Software in MINIX 185
3.4.4 User-level I/O Software in MINIX 185
3.4.5 Deadlock Handling in MINIX 186

3.5 BLOCK DEVICES IN MINIX 187
3.5.1 Overview of Block Device Drivers in MINIX 187
3.5.2 Common Block Device Driver Software 190
3.5.3 The Driver Library 193

3.6 RAM DISKS 195
3.6.1 RAM Disk Hardware and Software 196
3.6.2 Overview of the RAM Disk Driver in MINIX 197
3.6.3 Implementation of the RAM Disk Driver in MINIX 198

3.7 DISKS 200
3.7.1 Disk Hardware 200
3.7.2 Disk Software 202
3.7.3 Overview of the Hard Disk Driver in MINIX 208
3.7.4 Implementation of the Hard Disk Driver in MINIX 211
3.7.5 Floppy Disk Handling 220

3.8 CLOCKS 222
3.8.1 Clock Hardware 223
3.8.2 Clock Software 224
3.8.3 Overview of the Clock Driver in MINIX 227
3.8.4 Implementation of the Clock Driver in MINIX 230

3.9 TERMINALS 235
3.9.1 Terminal Hardware 235
3.9.2 Terminal Software 240
3.9.3 Overview of the Terminal Driver in MINIX 249
3.9.4 Implementation of the Device-Independent Terminal Driver 264
3.9.5 Implementation of the Keyboard Driver 282
3.9.6 Implementation of the Display Driver 288

3.10 THE SYSTEM TASK IN MINIX 296

3.11 SUMMARY 304




CHAPTER 4 MEMORY MANAGEMENT 309

4.1 BASIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT 310
4.1.1 Monoprogramming without Swapping or Paging 310
4.1.2 Multiprogramming wiith Fixed Partitions 311

4.2 SWAPPING 313
4.2.1 Memory Management with Bit Maps 316
4.2.2 Memory Management with Linked Lists 317

4.3 VIRTUAL MEMORY 319
4.3.1 Paging 319
4.3.2 Page Tables 322
4.3.3 TLBs-Translation Lookaside Buffers 327
4.3.4 Inverted Page Tables 330

4.4 PAGE REPLACEMENT ALGORITHMS 331
4.4.1 The Optimal Page Replacement Algorithm 331
4.4.2 The Not-Recently-Used Page Replacement Algorithm 332
4.4.3 The First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Page Replacement Algorithm 333
4.4.4 The Second Chance Page Replacement Algorithm 333
4.4.5 The Clock Page Replacement Algorithm 334
4.4.6 The Least Recently Used (LRU) Page Replacement Algorithm 334
4.4.7 Simulating LRU in Software 336

4.5 DESIGN ISSUES FOR PAGING SYSTEMS 338
4.5.1 The Working Set Model 338
4.5.2 Local versus Global Allocation Policies 339
4.5.3 Page Size 341
4.5.4 Virtual Memory Interface 343

4.6 SEGMENTATION 343
4.6.1 Implementation of Pure Segmentation 347
4.6.2 Segmentation with Paging: MULTICS 348
4.6.3 Segmentation with Paging: The Intel Pentium 352

4.7 OVERVIEW OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT IN MINIX 356
4.7.1 Memory Layout 358
4.7.2 Message Handling 361
4.7.3 Memory Manager Data Structures and Algorithms 363
4.7.4 The FORK, EXIT, and WAIT System Calls 367
4.7.5 The EXEC System Call 368
4.7.6 The BRK System Call 371
4.7.7 Signal Handling 372
4.7.8 Other System Calls 378

4.8 IMPLEMENTATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT IN MINIX 379
4.8.1 The Header Files and Data Structures 379
4.8.2 The Main Program 382
4.8.3 Implementation of FORK, EXIT, and WAIT 382
4.8.4 Implementation of EXEC 385
4.8.5 Implementation of BRK 386
4.8.6 Implementation of Signal Handling 387
4.8.7 Implementation of the Other System Calls 393
4.8.8 Memory Manager Utilities 394

4.9 SUMMARY 396




CHAPTER 5 FILE SYSTEMS 401

5.1 FILES 402
5.1.1 File Naming 402
5.1.2 File Structure 404
5.1.3 File Types 405
5.1.4 File Access 407
5.1.5 File Attributes 408
5.1.6 File Operations 409

5.2 DIRECTORIES 410
5.2.1 Hierarchical Directory Systems 411
5.2.2 Path Names 412
5.2.3 Directory Operations 414

5.3 FILE SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION 415
5.3.1 Implementing Files 415
5.3.2 Implementing Directories 419
5.3.3 Disk Space Management 422
5.3.4 File System Reliability 424
5.3.5 File System Performance 429
5.3.6 Log-Structured File Systems 432

5.4 SECURITY 434
5.4.1 The Security Environment 434
5.4.2 Famous Security Flaws 436
5.4.3 Generic Security Attacks 439
5.4.4 Design Principles for Security 441
5.4.5 User Authentication 442

5.5 PROTECTION MECHANISMS 446
5.5.1 Protection Domains 446
5.5.2 Access Control Lists 448
5.5.3 Capabilities 450
5.5.4 Covert Channels 451

5.6 OVERVIEW OF THE MINIX FILE SYSTEM 453
5.6.1 Messages 454
5.6.2 File System Layout 454
5.6.3 Bit Maps 458
5.6.4 I-nodes 460
5.6.5 The Block Cache 461
5.6.6 Directories and Paths 463
5.6.7 File Descriptors 465
5.6.8 File Locking 467
5.6.9 Pipes and Special Files 467
5.6.10 An Example: The READ System Call 469

5.7 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIX FILE SYSTEM 470
5.7.1 Header Files and Global Data Structures 470
5.7.2 Table Management 474
5.7.3 The Main Program 482
5.7.4 Operations on Individual Files 485
5.7.5 Directories and Paths 493
5.7.6 Other System Calls 498
5.7.7 The I/O Device Interface 501
5.7.8 General Utilities 503

5.8 SUMMARY 503




CHAPTER 6 READING LIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 507

6.1 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING 507
6.1.1 Introduction and General Works 507
6.1.2 Processes 509
6.1.3 Input/Output 510
6.1.4 Memory Management 511
6.1.5 File Systems 511

6.2 ALPHABETICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 512

APPENDIX A MINIX SOURCE CODE LISTING 521

APPENDIX B INDEX TO FILES 905

APPENDIX C INDEX TO SYMBOLS 909

INDEX 925

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